How to format your references using the Journal of Eastern African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Eastern African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spratt, Brian G. “Microbiology. Stomachs out of Africa.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299, no. 5612 (March 7, 2003): 1528–29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Velicogna, Isabella, and John Wahr. “Measurements of Time-Variable Gravity Show Mass Loss in Antarctica.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311, no. 5768 (March 24, 2006): 1754–56.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murray, Benjamin J., Daniel A. Knopf, and Allan K. Bertram. “The Formation of Cubic Ice under Conditions Relevant to Earth’s Atmosphere.” Nature 434, no. 7030 (March 10, 2005): 202–5.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bent, M. Leontien van der, Mark G. Sterken, Rita J. M. Volkers, Joost A. G. Riksen, Tobias Schmid, Alex Hajnal, Jan E. Kammenga, and L. Basten Snoek. “Loss-of-Function of β-Catenin Bar-1 Slows Development and Activates the Wnt Pathway in Caenorhabditis Elegans.” Scientific Reports 4 (May 13, 2014): 4926.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heitz, Ewald, and Gerhard Kreysa. Grundlagen Der Technischen Elektrochemie. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.
An edited book
Sackheim, Kimberly A., ed. Rehab Clinical Pocket Guide: Rehabilitation Medicine. New York, NY: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Leonard, Andy, Matt Masson, Tim Mitchell, Jessica M. Moss, and Michelle Ufford. “Data Cleansing with Data Quality Services.” In SQL Server 2012 Integration Services Design Patterns, edited by Matt Masson, Tim Mitchell, Jessica M. Moss, and Michelle Ufford, 101–22. Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Eastern African Studies.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. “Why Do Male Fruit Flies Have Humongous Sperm?” IFLScience. IFLScience, May 26, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center: Cost Growth and Other Factors Affect Closure and Privatization.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, December 9, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Basik, Nathan. “An Evolutionary Approach to Intuitionism and Moral Realism.” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Christopher. “Old Story in Politics Resonates in New Era.” New York Times, April 27, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Eastern African Studies
AbbreviationJ. East. Afr. Stud.
ISSN (print)1753-1055
ISSN (online)1753-1063
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles