How to format your references using the Journal of Eastern African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Eastern African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spiegelhalter, D. J. “Statistics. The Future Lies in Uncertainty.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345, no. 6194 (July 18, 2014): 264–65.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanderson, Warren C., and Sergei Scherbov. “Average Remaining Lifetimes Can Increase as Human Populations Age.” Nature 435, no. 7043 (June 9, 2005): 811–13.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murakami, Shuichi, Naoto Nagaosa, and Shou-Cheng Zhang. “Dissipationless Quantum Spin Current at Room Temperature.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301, no. 5638 (September 5, 2003): 1348–51.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
VanderVen, Brian C., Jeffery D. Harder, Dean C. Crick, and John T. Belisle. “Export-Mediated Assembly of Mycobacterial Glycoproteins Parallels Eukaryotic Pathways.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309, no. 5736 (August 5, 2005): 941–43.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Péra, Marie-Cécile, Daniel Hissel, Hamid Gualous, and Christophe Turpin. Electrochemical Components. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Gupta, Pankaj. Healing Traditions of the Northwestern Himalayas. Edited by Vijay Kumar Sharma and Sushma Sharma. SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science. New Delhi: Springer India, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Laxmi, B. Prathusha, and A. Chilambuchelvan. “Secured Two Phase Geographic Forwarding with GSS Algorithm.” In Advances in Communication, Network, and Computing: Third International Conference, CNC 2012, Chennai, India, February 24-25, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Vinu V. Das and Janahanlal Stephen, 25–30. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Eastern African Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Mining For Metals In Society’s Waste.” IFLScience. IFLScience, October 2, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Request for Comments on Proposed Amendment.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 5, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore, Austin Malone. “Assessing the Demand for Simplified Stormwater Modeling Tools within the Design Profession to Facilitate the Adoption of Sustainable Stormwater Practices.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James, Marlon. “Five or Six Things I Didn’t Know About Brad Pitt.” New York Times, September 7, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Eastern African Studies
AbbreviationJ. East. Afr. Stud.
ISSN (print)1753-1055
ISSN (online)1753-1063
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles