How to format your references using the Journal of Eastern African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Eastern African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilczek, Frank. “An Explorer and Surveyor.” Nature 437, no. 7062 (October 20, 2005): 1095.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miyake, Toru, and Raghu Kalluri. “Cardiac Biology: Cell Plasticity Helps Hearts to Repair.” Nature 514, no. 7524 (October 30, 2014): 575–76.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pauluis, Olivier, Arnaud Czaja, and Robert Korty. “The Global Atmospheric Circulation on Moist Isentropes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321, no. 5892 (August 22, 2008): 1075–78.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Honda, Takato, Chi-Yu Lee, Maki Yoshida-Kasikawa, Ken Honjo, and Katsuo Furukubo-Tokunaga. “Induction of Associative Olfactory Memory by Targeted Activation of Single Olfactory Neurons in Drosophila Larvae.” Scientific Reports 4 (April 25, 2014): 4798.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ciana, Paul. New Frontiers in Technical Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Foret, Annie, Glyn Morrill, Reinhard Muskens, Rainer Osswald, and Sylvain Pogodalla, eds. Formal Grammar: 20th and 21st International Conferences, FG 2015, Barcelona, Spain, August 2015, Revised Selected Papers. FG 2016, Bozen, Italy, August 2016, Proceedings. Vol. 9804. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Yaduvanshi, Rajveer S., and Harish Parthasarathy. “Mathematical Analysis of Transcendental Equation in Rectangular DRA.” In Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antennas: Theory and Design, edited by Harish Parthasarathy, 57–102. New Delhi: Springer India, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Eastern African Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. “Scientists Have Found A Way To Photograph People In 3D Through Walls Using Wi-Fi.” IFLScience. IFLScience, May 22, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “No Child Left Behind Act: Education Should Clarify Guidance and Address Potential Compliance Issues for Schools in Corrective Action and Restructuring Status.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, September 5, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sewell, Amanda. “A Typology of Sampling in Hip-Hop.” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lovett, Ian, and Adam Nagourney. “Deadly Rampage in College Town After Video Rant.” New York Times, May 24, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Eastern African Studies
AbbreviationJ. East. Afr. Stud.
ISSN (print)1753-1055
ISSN (online)1753-1063
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles