How to format your references using the Journal of Eastern African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Eastern African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Park, Robert W. “Anthropology. Stories of Arctic Colonization.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345, no. 6200 (August 29, 2014): 1004–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Neill, Michael J., and Rachel J. O’Neill. “Genomics: Something to Swing About.” Nature 513, no. 7517 (September 11, 2014): 174–75.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kilb, D., J. Gomberg, and P. Bodin. “Triggering of Earthquake Aftershocks by Dynamic Stresses.” Nature 408, no. 6812 (November 30, 2000): 570–74.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Grashoff, Carsten, Brenton D. Hoffman, Michael D. Brenner, Ruobo Zhou, Maddy Parsons, Michael T. Yang, Mark A. McLean, et al. “Measuring Mechanical Tension across Vinculin Reveals Regulation of Focal Adhesion Dynamics.” Nature 466, no. 7303 (July 8, 2010): 263–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maksoud, Mohamed A. Quick Reference to Dental Implant Surgery. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
Gamerschlag, Thomas, Doris Gerland, Rainer Osswald, and Wiebke Petersen, eds. Frames and Concept Types: Applications in Language and Philosophy. Vol. 94. Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Lonborg, Susan D., and Cheryl B. Travis. “Living Longer, Healthier Lives.” In Women Over 50: Psychological Perspectives, edited by Varda Muhlbauer and Joan C. Chrisler, 53–78. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Eastern African Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “How Hubble’s Successor Will Give Us A Glimpse Into The Very First Galaxies.” IFLScience. IFLScience, September 16, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Qualifying for Federal Funding of Tribally Controlled Community Colleges.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 18, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman, Kristin M. “Parent Involvement in the Promotion of Healthy Outcomes for Young Girls: A Grant Writing Project.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. “Time for Recalling the Departed And Reuniting the Long-Lost Related.” New York Times, June 24, 2001.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Eastern African Studies
AbbreviationJ. East. Afr. Stud.
ISSN (print)1753-1055
ISSN (online)1753-1063
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles