How to format your references using the Journal of Eastern African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Eastern African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bucksbaum, Philip H. “Chemistry. The First Femtosecond in the Life of a Chemical Reaction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312, no. 5772 (April 21, 2006): 373–74.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stern, S. A., and P. R. Weissman. “Rapid Collisional Evolution of Comets during the Formation of the Oort Cloud.” Nature 409, no. 6820 (February 1, 2001): 589–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davidson, E. Megan, Richard Frothingham, and Robert Cook-Deegan. “Science and Security. Practical Experiences in Dual-Use Review.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316, no. 5830 (June 8, 2007): 1432–33.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Aomatsu, Emiko, Noriko Takahashi, Shunsuke Sawada, Naoto Okubo, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Masayuki Taira, Hiroyuki Miura, Akira Ishisaki, and Naoyuki Chosa. “Novel SCRG1/BST1 Axis Regulates Self-Renewal, Migration, and Osteogenic Differentiation Potential in Mesenchymal Stem Cells.” Scientific Reports 4 (January 13, 2014): 3652.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guzik, Arlene. Essentials for Occupational Health Nursing. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Temple, Norman J., Ted Wilson, and David R. Jacobs Jr., eds. Nutritional Health: Strategies for Disease Prevention. 3rd ed. 2012. Nutrition and Health. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Das, Anadijiban. “Riemannian and Pseudo-Riemannian Manifolds.” In Tensors: The Mathematics of Relativity Theory and Continuum Mechanics, edited by Anadijiban Das, 121–99. New York, NY: Springer, 2007.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Eastern African Studies.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. “200,000 More Children Have Been Vaccinated In Australia Following New Policies.” IFLScience. IFLScience, February 20, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Improper Use of Federal Student Aid Funds for Lobbying Activities.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 9, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kamph, Molly. “Examining Commodity, Agency, and Value: Prehistoric French Replicas, Casts, and ‘Frauds’ within the National Museum of Natural History’s Collection.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. “Being Whatever It Takes to Win Election.” New York Times, August 23, 1992.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Eastern African Studies
AbbreviationJ. East. Afr. Stud.
ISSN (print)1753-1055
ISSN (online)1753-1063
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles