How to format your references using the Journal of Eastern African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Eastern African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garner, Ethan Clark. “GE Prize Essay. Understanding a Minimal DNA-Segregating Machine.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322, no. 5907 (December 5, 2008): 1486–87.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim-Muller, Ja Young, and Domenico Accili. “Cell Biology. Selective Insulin Sensitizers.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331, no. 6024 (March 25, 2011): 1529–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dragoi, V., C. Rivadulla, and M. Sur. “Foci of Orientation Plasticity in Visual Cortex.” Nature 411, no. 6833 (May 3, 2001): 80–86.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Madon, Temina, Karen J. Hofman, Linda Kupfer, and Roger I. Glass. “Public Health. Implementation Science.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318, no. 5857 (December 14, 2007): 1728–29.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhu, Zhechen, and Asoke K. Nandi. Automatic Modulation Classification. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
Ziegler, Alexander, Heinz Graafsma, Xiao Feng Zhang, and Joost W. M. Frenken, eds. In-Situ Materials Characterization: Across Spatial and Temporal Scales. Vol. 193. Springer Series in Materials Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Davidson, Ruth. “Working-Class Women Activists: Citizenship at the Local Level.” In Alternatives to State-Socialism in Britain: Other Worlds of Labour in the Twentieth Century, edited by Peter Ackers and Alastair J. Reid, 93–120. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Eastern African Studies.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. “Volunteers Needed To Find All The Polygonal Ridges Of Mars.” IFLScience. IFLScience, January 26, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Federal Vehicle Collisions and Aftermarket Collision Avoidance Technologies.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 24, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wood, Elizabeth D. “A Study of the Effect of Grouping Students and Results on the Ohio Achievement Assessment for Reading.” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary, Steve Eder, and Matt Krupnick. “In Death of L.I. High School Player, Perils of a Sport Reverberate.” New York Times, October 2, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Eastern African Studies
AbbreviationJ. East. Afr. Stud.
ISSN (print)1753-1055
ISSN (online)1753-1063
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles