How to format your references using the Journal of Eastern African Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Eastern African Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chamberlain, Jeffrey S. “Genetics. A Genetic Intervention Stands a Skip Away from Clinical Tests.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338, no. 6113 (December 14, 2012): 1431–32.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wortmann, Ulrich G., and Adina Paytan. “Rapid Variability of Seawater Chemistry over the Past 130 Million Years.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337, no. 6092 (July 20, 2012): 334–36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wörsdörfer, Bigna, Kenneth J. Woycechowsky, and Donald Hilvert. “Directed Evolution of a Protein Container.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331, no. 6017 (February 4, 2011): 589–92.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhao, Dong, Ilias Katsouras, Mengyuan Li, Kamal Asadi, Junto Tsurumi, Gunnar Glasser, Jun Takeya, Paul W. M. Blom, and Dago M. de Leeuw. “Polarization Fatigue of Organic Ferroelectric Capacitors.” Scientific Reports 4 (May 27, 2014): 5075.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gunn, Alan, and Sarah J. Pitt. Parasitology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012.
An edited book
Sadegh Amiri, Iraj. Optical Soliton Communication Using Ultra-Short Pulses. Edited by Harith Ahmad. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Singapore: Springer, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Nagnibeda, Ekaterina, and Elena Kustova. “Multi-Temperature Models in Transport and Relaxation Theory.” In Non-Equilibrium Reacting Gas Flows: Kinetic Theory of Transport and Relaxation Processes, edited by Elena Kustova, 55–95. Heat and Mass Transfer. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Eastern African Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Study Finds Common Food Additive Promotes Inflammatory Bowel Disease And Obesity.” IFLScience. IFLScience, February 26, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Federal Ships: Policy Changes in the Disposal of Surplus Ships.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 17, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emmerling-Baker, Denise. “A Qualitative Interpretive Phenomenological Study of K5 Teacher Perceptions of Classroom Empathy Instruction.” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, Susan. “A Handmade Sea of Sparkling Glass.” New York Times, January 3, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Eastern African Studies
AbbreviationJ. East. Afr. Stud.
ISSN (print)1753-1055
ISSN (online)1753-1063
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles