How to format your references using the Journal of Earth System Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Earth System Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Muddiman, David C. 2011. Retrospective. John Bennett Fenn (1917-2010). Science (New York, N.Y.) 331: 160.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirwan, Matthew L., and Simon M. Mudd. 2012. Response of salt-marsh carbon accumulation to climate change. Nature 489: 550–553.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mathew-Fenn, Rebecca S., Rhiju Das, and Pehr A. B. Harbury. 2008. Remeasuring the double helix. Science (New York, N.Y.) 322: 446–449.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hasselmann, Martin, Tanja Gempe, Morten Schiøtt, Carlos Gustavo Nunes-Silva, Marianne Otte, and Martin Beye. 2008. Evidence for the evolutionary nascence of a novel sex determination pathway in honeybees. Nature 454: 519–522.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, S. A., and M. Azizur Rahman. 2010. An Introduction to Wavelet Modulated Inverters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Quarteroni, Alfio. 2008. Calcolo Scientifico: Esercizi e problemi risolti con MATLAB e Octave. Edited by Fausto Saleri. 4a edizione. Unitext. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuo, P. S., and M. M. Fejer. 2008. Microstructured Semiconductors for Mid-Infrared Nonlinear Optics. In Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications, ed. Majid Ebrahim-Zadeh and Irina T. Sorokina, 149–168. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Earth System Science.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. Why You Might Want To Think Twice About Surrendering Online Privacy For The Sake Of Convenience. IFLScience. IFLScience. January 11.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Important Progress Made, But Much Work Remains to Avoid Disruption of Critical Services. T-AIMD-99-267. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tucker, Tanisha. 2014. Psychoeducational support groups for postadoptive parents: A grant-writing project. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2016. Home Runs, Not Surprisingly, Lift the Mets. New York Times, September 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Muddiman 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Muddiman 2011; Kirwan and Mudd 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kirwan and Mudd 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Hasselmann et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Earth System Science
ISSN (print)0253-4126
ISSN (online)0973-774X

Other styles