How to format your references using the Journal of Earth System Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Earth System Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Prusiner, Stanley B. 2012. Cell biology. A unifying role for prions in neurodegenerative diseases. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336: 1511–1513.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nudds, Robert L., and Gareth J. Dyke. 2010. Narrow primary feather rachises in Confuciusornis and Archaeopteryx suggest poor flight ability. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328: 887–889.
A journal article with 3 authors
Copley, Alex, Jean-Philippe Avouac, and Brian P. Wernicke. 2011. Evidence for mechanical coupling and strong Indian lower crust beneath southern Tibet. Nature 472: 79–81.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Karlsson, Maria, Balder Rebmann, Philipp S. Lienemann, Natallia Sprossmann, Martin Ehrbar, Gerald Radziwill, and Wilfried Weber. 2013. Pharmacologically controlled protein switch for ON-OFF regulation of growth factor activity. Scientific reports 3: 2716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yeakley, Celeste Labrunda, and Jeffrey D. Fiebrich. 2015. Collaborative Process Improvement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pelc, Andrzej, ed. 2007. Distributed Computing: 21st International Symposium, DISC 2007, Lemesos, Cyprus, September 24-26, 2007. Proceedings. Vol. 4731. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wilcock, Neil, and Corina Scholz. 2016. Overcoming Underdevelopment. In Hartmut Elsenhans and a Critique of Capitalism: Conversations on Theory and Policy Implications, ed. Corina Scholz, 40–56. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Earth System Science.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Why Rosetta Is The Greatest Space Mission Of Our Lifetime. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 4.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Aviation and the Environment: NextGen and Research and Development Are Keys to Reducing Emissions and Their Impact on Health and Climate. GAO-08-706T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wulfsberg, Joanna Christine. 2015. Singing Turkish, performing Turkishness: Message and audience in the song competition of the International Turkish Olympiad. Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, Linda. 2017. Phone Surveillance, Falsehoods and Anonymous Sources. New York Times, March 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Prusiner 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Nudds and Dyke 2010; Prusiner 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nudds and Dyke 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Karlsson et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Earth System Science
ISSN (print)0253-4126
ISSN (online)0973-774X

Other styles