How to format your references using the Journal of Earth System Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Earth System Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reed, Christina. 2014. Winter is coming. Science (New York, N.Y.) 344: 1054.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weller, Evan, and Wenju Cai. 2014. Meridional variability of atmospheric convection associated with the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. Scientific reports 4: 3590.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eggleton, Peter P., David S. P. Dearborn, and John C. Lattanzio. 2006. Deep mixing of 3He: reconciling Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314: 1580–1583.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hunte, Carola, Emanuela Screpanti, Miro Venturi, Abraham Rimon, Etana Padan, and Hartmut Michel. 2005. Structure of a Na+/H+ antiporter and insights into mechanism of action and regulation by pH. Nature 435: 1197–1202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bobrow, Jerry, Ed Kohn, Joy Mondragon-Gilmore, and Jean Eggenschwiler. 2009. CliffsNotes® Praxis I®: PPST®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Borrajo, Daniel, Luis Castillo, and Juan Manuel Corchado, ed. 2007. Current Topics in Artificial Intelligence: 12th Conference of the Spanish Association for Artificial Intelligence, CAEPIA 2007, Salamanca, Spain, November 12-16, 2007. Selected Papers. Vol. 4788. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pedersen, Bente Klarlund. 2012. Physical Activity and Pregnancy. In Maternal Obesity and Pregnancy, ed. Per Glud Ovesen and Dorte Møller Jensen, 63–74. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Earth System Science.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. Huge DNA Study Assesses Genomes Of Iceland’s Population. IFLScience. IFLScience. March 26.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Contractors’ Independent Research and Development Program--Issues and Alternatives. PSAD-75-82. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Che, Haihong. 2009. Non-linear development of streaming instabilities in magnetic reconnection with a strong guide field. Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, James. 2017. Fantasy Frenzy? Or Eerie Dreams? New York Times, August 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reed 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Reed 2014; Weller and Cai 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weller and Cai 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hunte et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Earth System Science
ISSN (print)0253-4126
ISSN (online)0973-774X

Other styles