How to format your references using the Journal of Earth System Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Earth System Science (J Earth Syst Sci). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fairley, W. B. 2000. Outrageous events: don’t count them out. Science (New York, N.Y.) 290: 715.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zénon, Alexandre, and Richard J. Krauzlis. 2012. Attention deficits without cortical neuronal deficits. Nature 489: 434–437.
A journal article with 3 authors
Powell, Kristin I., Jonathan M. Chase, and Tiffany M. Knight. 2013. Invasive plants have scale-dependent effects on diversity by altering species-area relationships. Science (New York, N.Y.) 339: 316–318.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Segarra, Marta, Maria R. Aburto, Florian Cop, Cecília Llaó-Cid, Ricarda Härtl, Miriam Damm, Ioanna Bethani, et al. 2018. Endothelial Dab1 signaling orchestrates neuro-glia-vessel communication in the central nervous system. Science (New York, N.Y.) 361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eggleston, Brian. 2008. The ICE Conditions of Contract: Seventh Edition. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd.
An edited book
Bassis, Simone, Anna Esposito, Francesco Carlo Morabito, and Eros Pasero, ed. 2016. Advances in Neural Networks: Computational Intelligence for ICT. Vol. 54. Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Shah, Shiwan, and Gulshan Sharma. 2014. Current Clinical Diagnostic Tests for Asthma. In Heterogeneity in Asthma, ed. Allan R. Brasier, 75–80. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Earth System Science.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. Tool Use is Innate in Chimpanzees. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Telecommunications: Preliminary Information on Media Ownership. GAO-08-330R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Curti, Christina L. 2017. Talking About Science Interests: The Importance of Feedback Appraisals When Students Talk About Their Interests in STEM. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, James. 2016. Figaro, the Toolmaking Cockatoo. New York Times, November 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harris 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Aubert 2015; de Vries 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zénon and Krauzlis 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Hensel et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Earth System Science
ISSN (print)0253-4126
ISSN (online)0973-774X

Other styles