How to format your references using the Journal of Earth System Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Earth System Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nowak, Martin A. 2006. Five rules for the evolution of cooperation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314: 1560–1563.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johansson, S., and V. Letokhov. 2001. Resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization of ions by Lyman alpha radiation in gaseous nebulae. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291: 625–627.
A journal article with 3 authors
Soroceanu, Liliana, Armin Akhavan, and Charles S. Cobbs. 2008. Platelet-derived growth factor-alpha receptor activation is required for human cytomegalovirus infection. Nature 455: 391–395.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Prochnik, Simon E., James Umen, Aurora M. Nedelcu, Armin Hallmann, Stephen M. Miller, Ichiro Nishii, Patrick Ferris, et al. 2010. Genomic analysis of organismal complexity in the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri. Science (New York, N.Y.) 329: 223–226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cotarca, Livius, and Heiner Eckert. 2005. Phosgenations - A Handbook. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Scott, John Edward. 2011. Expert Oracle Application Express. Edited by Sharon Kennedy, Dietmar Aust, Denes Kubicek, Martin Giffy D’Souza, Raj Mattamal, Doug Gault, Dan McGhan, et al. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Karthik, T., R. Rathinamoorthy, and P. Ganesan. 2015. Sustainable Luxury Natural Fibers—Production, Properties, and Prospects. In Handbook of Sustainable Luxury Textiles and Fashion: Volume 1, ed. Miguel Angel Gardetti and Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, 59–98. Environmental Footprints and Eco-Design of Products and Processes. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Earth System Science.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Early Humans Had To Become More Feminine Before They Could Dominate The Planet. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 19.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Nanomanufacturing and U.S. Competitiveness: Challenges and Opportunities. GAO-14-618T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laffier, Jennifer. 2015. A qualitative evaluation of the role of artistic expression in psychological empowerment of bullying victims. Doctoral dissertation, Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rohan, Tim. 2014. Before Hitting and Fielding, Young Mets Seek Edge by Running and Stretching. New York Times, February 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nowak 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Johansson and Letokhov 2001; Nowak 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johansson and Letokhov 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Prochnik et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Earth System Science
ISSN (print)0253-4126
ISSN (online)0973-774X

Other styles