How to format your references using the Journal of Earth System Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Earth System Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aldhous, P. 2001. Millennium Dome sees signs of a Wellcome break. Nature 412: 258.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pritchard, Matthew E., and Mark Simons. 2002. A satellite geodetic survey of large-scale deformation of volcanic centres in the central Andes. Nature 418: 167–171.
A journal article with 3 authors
Malinowski, Justin T., Robert J. Sharpe, and Jeffrey S. Johnson. 2013. Enantioselective synthesis of pactamycin, a complex antitumor antibiotic. Science (New York, N.Y.) 340: 180–182.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Han, The Anh, Luís Moniz Pereira, Francisco C. Santos, and Tom Lenaerts. 2013. Good agreements make good friends. Scientific reports 3: 2695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matthys, Walter, and John E. Lochman. 2016. Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder in Childhood. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kulshreshtha, Manisha. 2012. Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study. Edited by Ramkumar Mathur. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Duistermaat, J. J., and J. A. C. Kolk. 2010. Convergence of Distributions. In Distributions: Theory and Applications, ed. J. A. C. Kolk, 51–58. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Earth System Science.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. There Are 2 Trillion Galaxies In The Visible Universe, According To The Latest Count. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 14.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Quantitative Data Analysis: An Introduction. PEMD-10.1.11. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morrison, Gillian Kye. 2010. Self-reported, interview-assisted diet records underreport protein and energy intake in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, Ben. 2017. A Clown and a Correspondent Join the Global Elite. New York Times, January 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aldhous 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Aldhous 2001; Pritchard and Simons 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pritchard and Simons 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Han et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Earth System Science
ISSN (print)0253-4126
ISSN (online)0973-774X

Other styles