How to format your references using the Journal of Earth System Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Earth System Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul. 2004. A delicate balance. Nature 429: 323.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kwon, Oh-Hoon, and Ahmed H. Zewail. 2010. 4D electron tomography. Science (New York, N.Y.) 328: 1668–1673.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutzoni, F., M. Pagel, and V. Reeb. 2001. Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors. Nature 411: 937–940.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
McElroy, K., Jinho Lee, J. A. Slezak, D-H Lee, H. Eisaki, S. Uchida, and J. C. Davis. 2005. Atomic-Scale Sources and Mechanism of Nanoscale Electronic Disorder in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 1048–1052.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kromidas, Stavros. 2014. Der HPLC-Experte. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Marshall, Catherine A., Sam J. Nolan, and Douglas P. Newton, ed. 2016. Widening Participation, Higher Education and Non-Traditional Students: Supporting Transitions through Foundation Programmes. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Sande, Steve, and Erica Sadun. 2010. iPhone Messaging and Social Networking. In Taking Your iPhone 4 to the Max, ed. Erica Sadun, Clay Andres, Tom Welsh, Steve Anglin, Mark Beckner, Ewan Buckingham, Gary Cornell, et al., 79–95. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Earth System Science.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. Airbus Plane Sunk Off Turkish Coast To Become Artificial Reef. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 6.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Proposal for Replacement of Indian Health Service Hospital. HRD-78-124. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robles, Steven. 2013. Transient over-voltages generated by solar photovoltaic inverters. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schembari, James. 2016. Take a Spin With a Pro. New York Times, October 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Kwon and Zewail 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kwon and Zewail 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (McElroy et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Earth System Science
ISSN (print)0253-4126
ISSN (online)0973-774X

Other styles