How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Electrochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Electrochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Ruiz-Casares, Mental health: Tailor informed-consent processes, Nature. 513 (2014) 304.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.L. Sriver, M. Huber, Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropical cyclones, Nature. 447 (2007) 577–580.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Ash, J. Foley, E. Pennisi, Microbial ecology. Lost in microbial space. Special section introduction, Science. 320 (2008) 1027.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Sui, B.G. Han, J.K. Lee, P. Walian, B.K. Jap, Structural basis of water-specific transport through the AQP1 water channel, Nature. 414 (2001) 872–878.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.A. Smith, H. van de Waterbeemd, D.K. Walker, Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism in Drug Design: SMITH: PHARMACOKINETICS AND METABOLISM IN DRUG DESIGN O-BK, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2006.
An edited book
G. Neyer, G. Andersson, H. Kulu, L. Bernardi, C. Bühler, eds., The Demography of Europe, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Cavapozzi, A. Fiume, C. Garrouste, G. Weber, Human Capital Accumulation and Investment Behaviour, in: A. Börsch-Supan, M. Brandt, K. Hank, M. Schröder (Eds.), The Individual and the Welfare State: Life Histories in Europe, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Electrochemistry.

Blog post
J. Fang, How Can We Tell What Color An Extinct Animal Was?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Protest of Proposal Rejection, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.B. Solomon, Analysis of Emergency Responder Preparedness to Active Shooter Incidents in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Riverside Counties, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Signer, Charlottesville Will Move On, New York Times. (2017) A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Electrochemistry
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Electrochem.
ISSN (print)2451-9103

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