How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Electrochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Electrochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Mervis, RESEARCH POLICY: Report Tracks Federal Funding in Each State, Science. 288 (2000) 2115b.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.R. Insel, S. Landis, Allison Doupe (1954-2014), Nature. 515 (2014) 344.
A journal article with 3 authors
F.V. Chisari, W.S. Mason, C. Seeger, Virology. Comment on “Specific and nonhepatotoxic degradation of nuclear hepatitis B virus cccDNA,” Science. 344 (2014) 1237.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Gong, T. Han, X. Yin, G. Yang, R. Zhuang, Y. Chen, Z. Lu, Prevalence of depressive symptoms and work-related risk factors among nurses in public hospitals in southern China: a cross-sectional study, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7109.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.J. Duffy, Finite Difference Methods in Financial Engineering, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2006.
An edited book
G.R. Jensen, Surfaces in Classical Geometries: A Treatment by Moving Frames, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
N.S. Govindarajulu, S. Bringsjord, Ethical Regulation of Robots Must Be Embedded in Their Operating Systems, in: R. Trappl (Ed.), A Construction Manual for Robots’ Ethical Systems: Requirements, Methods, Implementations, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 85–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Electrochemistry.

Blog post
R. Andrews, New Laser Could Generate Sun’s Core Temperature Instantaneously, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, U.S. Preparations for the 1983 Regional Administrative Radio Conference, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Beaven, Epiphanies of soul: “When the bolts of the universe fly open.” A depth psychological contemplation of wonder, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Mueller, A.L. Baker, A. Southall, Attempted Murder Charge in Bronx Shooting of Boy on His 5th Birthday, New York Times. (2017) A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Electrochemistry
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Electrochem.
ISSN (print)2451-9103

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