How to format your references using the Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Chazelle B. Computer science. Coding and computing join forces. Science. 2007;317(5845):1691-1692.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Cheung GYC, Otto M. Microbiology: Diverted on the way to memory. Nature. 2015;517(7532):28-29.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Baksh MM, Jaros M, Groves JT. Detection of molecular interactions at membrane surfaces through colloid phase transitions. Nature. 2004;427(6970):139-141.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Scheffer M, Carpenter S, Foley JA, Folke C, Walker B. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature. 2001;413(6856):591-596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Hoskins BJ, James IN. Fluid Dynamics of the Midlatitude Atmosphere. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Böhlen M, Gamper J, Polasek W, Wimmer MA, eds. E-Government: Towards Electronic Democracy: International Conference, TCGOV 2005, Bolzano, Italy, March 2-4, 2005. Proceedings. Vol 3416. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gaiduk PI, Prakopyeu SL. Structural Changes in SiGe/Si Layers Induced by Fast Crystallization. In: Skorupa W, Schmidt H, eds. Subsecond Annealing of Advanced Materials: Annealing by Lasers, Flash Lamps and Swift Heavy Ions. Springer Series in Materials Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014:79-105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Ants Devour Dead Gecko. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia: Chronology of Events Related to the Metropolitan Police Use of $15 Million Appropriation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Aldridge KN. The Impact of Improved Teachers’ Classroom Management and Cultural Responsiveness on Student Behavior. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kenigsberg B. Alina. New York Times. September 14, 2017:C11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Diabetes and Its Complications
AbbreviationJ. Diabetes Complications
ISSN (print)1056-8727
ScopeEndocrinology
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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