How to format your references using the Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilczek F. An explorer and surveyor. Nature. 2005;437(7062):1095.
A journal article with 2 authors
Salters VJM, Dick HJB. Mineralogy of the mid-ocean-ridge basalt source from neodymium isotopic composition of abyssal peridotites. Nature. 2002;418(6893):68-72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nuth JA 3rd, Hill HG, Kletetschka G. Determining the ages of comets from the fraction of crystalline dust. Nature. 2000;406(6793):275-276.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Larsson EM, Langhammer C, Zorić I, Kasemo B. Nanoplasmonic probes of catalytic reactions. Science. 2009;326(5956):1091-1094.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Furger C. Live Cell Assays. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Andersson PG, ed. Iridium Catalysis. Vol 34. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Faravelli L, Fuggini C, Ubertini F. Hybrid Control Procedures in Mitigating Cable Vibrations. In: Irschik H, Krommer M, Watanabe K, Furukawa T, eds. Mechanics and Model-Based Control of Smart Materials and Structures. Springer; 2010:39-48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications.

Blog post
Davis J. New Blood Test Could Predict Ovarian Cancer Risk. IFLScience. Published May 5, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: Information on the Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program and Consumer Participation in the Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClinton BE. Preparing for the Third Age: A Retirement Planning Course Outline for Lifelong Learning Programs. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G. Our Existentially Lucky Numbers. New York Times. June 23, 2015:D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Diabetes and Its Complications
AbbreviationJ. Diabetes Complications
ISSN (print)1056-8727
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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