How to format your references using the Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clawson D. Infrastructure. Tenure and the future of the university. Science. 2009;324(5931):1147-1148.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yacubova E, Komuro H. Stage-specific control of neuronal migration by somatostatin. Nature. 2002;415(6867):77-81.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jin FF, Boucharel J, Lin II. Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones intensified by El Niño delivery of subsurface ocean heat. Nature. 2014;516(7529):82-85.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nieto P, Pijper E, Barredo D, et al. Reactive and nonreactive scattering of H2 from a metal surface is electronically adiabatic. Science. 2006;312(5770):86-89.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coates M, Jenkins B. Electrical Installation Calculations: For Compliance with BS 7671:2008. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Shi YQ, Jeon B, eds. Digital Watermarking: 5th International Workshop, IWDW 2006, Jeju Island, Korea, November 8-10, 2006. Proceedings. Vol 4283. Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Rondon E, Salazar S, Escareno J, Lozano R. Vision-based Position Control of a Two-rotor VTOL miniUAV. In: Valavanis KP, Beard R, Oh P, Ollero A, Piegl LA, Shim H, eds. Selected Papers from the 2nd International Symposium on UAVs, Reno, Nevada, U.S.A. June 8–10, 2009. Springer Netherlands; 2010:49-64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists At Work: Space Balloons And Charged Particles Above The Arctic Circle. IFLScience. Published September 18, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Proposed Legislation to Fund and Establish a Nonprofit National Center for Long-Term Environmental Research. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ports MO. Laterally Associated Proteins Modulate Α6 Integrin Cleavage, a Permissive Process Utilized during Cancer Metastasis. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Two Blasts Kill Dozens Near Shrines in Damascus. New York Times. March 11, 2017:A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Diabetes and Its Complications
AbbreviationJ. Diabetes Complications
ISSN (print)1056-8727
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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