How to format your references using the Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Loder N. Unfavourable economics put postdocs across Europe under strain. Nature. 2000;407(6802):427-429.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Vokrouhlicky D, Farinella P. Efficient delivery of meteorites to the Earth from a wide range of asteroid parent bodies. Nature. 2000;407(6804):606-608.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bradley P, Misura KMS, Baker D. Toward high-resolution de novo structure prediction for small proteins. Science. 2005;309(5742):1868-1871.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Lian J, Yu L, Liang J-Q, Chen G, Jia S. Orbit-induced spin squeezing in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Olsen D. The Lean Product Playbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Butera G, Chessa M, Eicken A, Thomson J, eds. Cardiac Catheterization for Congenital Heart Disease: From Fetal Life to Adulthood. Milano: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Ueno S, Adachi F, Komatani K, Kawahara T, Okuno HG. Bus Information System Based on User Models and Dynamic Generation of VoiceXML Scripts. In: Sakurai A, Hasida K, Nitta K, eds. New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence: JSAI 2003 and JSAI 2004 Conferences and Workshops, Niigata, Japan, June 23-27, 2003 and Kanazawa, Japan, May 31 - June 4, 2004, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007:46-60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Successful Spider Cities Require Just the Right Mix of Females. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Guaranteed Student Loan Program Bankruptcies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
El-Amine Z. Waking Up in Beirut. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1.
Billard M. Saves Those Stripes, Grab Some Scarves. New York Times. July 29, 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Diabetes and Its Complications
AbbreviationJ. Diabetes Complications
ISSN (print)1056-8727
ScopeEndocrinology
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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