How to format your references using the Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spratt BG. Microbiology. Stomachs out of Africa. Science. 2003;299(5612):1528-1529.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ogawa W, Kasuga M. Cell signaling. Fat stress and liver resistance. Science. 2008;322(5907):1483-1484.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu BO, Zhao J, Feng Y. Active impedance metasurface with full 360° reflection phase tuning. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3059.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou W, Chen X-J, Zhang J-B, Li X-H, Wang Y-Q, Goncharov AF. Vibrational, electronic and structural properties of wurtzite GaAs nanowires under hydrostatic pressure. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoppert M. Microscopic Techniques in Biotechnology. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Kozlov V. Visualization of Conventional and Combusting Subsonic Jet Instabilities. 1st ed. 2016. (Grek GR, Litvinenko Y, eds.). Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Pinsker R. A Theoretical Framework for Examining the Corporate Adoption Decision Involving XBRL as a Continuous Disclosure Reporting Technology. In: Felden C, Piechocki M, eds. New Dimensions of Business Reporting and XBRL. DUV; 2007:73-98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications.

Blog post
Andrews R. Scientists Discover 40 New Genes Linked To Intelligence. IFLScience. Published May 23, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Should Limit Future Funding for Behavior Detection Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee S. Control-display alignment modulates dimensional salience. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Offering Fresh Weapons Against Test Anxiety. New York Times. January 20, 2008:LI6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Diabetes and Its Complications
AbbreviationJ. Diabetes Complications
ISSN (print)1056-8727
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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