How to format your references using the Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bourzac K. Microbiome: the bacterial tightrope. Nature. 2014;516(7529):S14-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Melville WK, Matusov P. Distribution of breaking waves at the ocean surface. Nature. 2002;417(6884):58-63.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raihani NJ, Grutter AS, Bshary R. Punishers benefit from third-party punishment in fish. Science. 2010;327(5962):171.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wu XC, Li Z, Zhou BC, Dong ZM. Palaeontology: a polydactylous amniote from the Triassic period. Nature. 2003;426(6966):516.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Norton L. How to Be a Global Nonprofit. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Balakrishnan R. A Textbook of Graph Theory. 2nd ed. 2012. (Ranganathan K, ed.). Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Ohsawa Y. Scenario Maps on Situational Switch Model, Applied to Blood-Test Data for Hepatitis C Patients. In: Ohsawa Y, Tsumoto S, eds. Chance Discoveries in Real World Decision Making: Data-Based Interaction of Human Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer; 2006:69-81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications.

Blog post
Andrew E. Happy Endings: The Ins And Outs Of Clinical Sexology. IFLScience. Published April 14, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. USDA Proposal To Acquire Automatic Data Processing Equipment. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payne LG. The Experience of Caring for Women with Drug or Alcohol Problems in the General Hospital. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Once a Fill-In Keeper, Now a Winning Scorer. New York Times. October 31, 2011:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Diabetes and Its Complications
AbbreviationJ. Diabetes Complications
ISSN (print)1056-8727
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles