How to format your references using the Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hwang HY. Applied physics. Tuning interface states. Science. 2006;313(5795):1895-1896.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falkowski PG, de Vargas C. Genomics and evolution. Shotgun sequencing in the sea: a blast from the past? Science. 2004;304(5667):58-60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levison HF, Kretke KA, Duncan MJ. Growing the gas-giant planets by the gradual accumulation of pebbles. Nature. 2015;524(7565):322-324.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sezen H, Buchholz M, Nefedov A, et al. Probing electrons in TiO2 polaronic trap states by IR-absorption: evidence for the existence of hydrogenic states. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3808.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bennett MR, Hacker PMS. History of Cognitive Neuroscience. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Figueiredo M. Reference-Free CMOS Pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converters. (Goes J, Evans G, eds.). Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Jakić B. Galaxy and the New Wave: Yugoslav Computer Culture in the 1980s. In: Alberts G, Oldenziel R, eds. Hacking Europe: From Computer Cultures to Demoscenes. History of Computing. Springer; 2014:107-128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications.

Blog post
Davis J. Newly Discovered Oldest Human Fossils Push Our Origin Back By 100,000 Years. IFLScience. Published June 7, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FTS 2001: Contract Transition Delays and Their Impact on Program Goals. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bottorff EA. The community college baccalaureate: A study of capital costs in Florida. Published online 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr. 30 Are Charged in Scam To Avoid Parking Tickets. New York Times. October 3, 2017:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Diabetes and Its Complications
AbbreviationJ. Diabetes Complications
ISSN (print)1056-8727
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles