How to format your references using the Journal of Criminal Justice Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Criminal Justice Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wade, N. (2009). Retrospective. John Maddox (1925-2009). Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5930), 1028.
A journal article with 2 authors
Benfey, P. N., & Mitchell-Olds, T. (2008). From genotype to phenotype: systems biology meets natural variation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5875), 495–497.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bowman, G. D., O’Donnell, M., & Kuriyan, J. (2004). Structural analysis of a eukaryotic sliding DNA clamp-clamp loader complex. Nature, 429(6993), 724–730.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fang, H., Oates, M. E., Pethica, R. B., Greenwood, J. M., Sardar, A. J., Rackham, O. J. L., … Gough, J. (2013). A daily-updated tree of (sequenced) life as a reference for genome research. Scientific Reports, 3, 2015.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cremona, C. (2013). Structural Performance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Helmstetter, J. (2008). Quadratic Mappings and Clifford Algebras. (A. Micali, Ed.). Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Park, I. K., & Kim, G. (2016). Innovation of ICT Manufacturing and Agglomeration Economies: Evolution over the Life Cycle. In E. Kim & B. H. S. Kim (Eds.), Quantitative Regional Economic and Environmental Analysis for Sustainability in Korea (pp. 69–87). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Criminal Justice Education.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, March 27). Gorgeous Imaginary “Flyby” Of Mars Created Using Real Images. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Intellectual Property: Comparison of Patent Examination Statistics for Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 (No. RCED-97-58). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fortenbery, N. R. (2012). Regulation of Natural Killer Cells: SHIP-1, 2B4, and Immunomodulation by Lenalidomide (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolata, G., Longman, J., & Pilon, M. (2013, April 17). Saving Lives, if Not Legs, With No Time to Fret. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jensen, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bourzac, 2014; Martin, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Benfey & Mitchell-Olds, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Bowman, O’Donnell, & Kuriyan, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gross et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Criminal Justice Education
AbbreviationJ. Crim. Justice Educ.
ISSN (print)1051-1253
ISSN (online)1745-9117

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