How to format your references using the Journal of Criminal Justice Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Criminal Justice Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Owens, B. (2015). Drug development: The treasure chest. Nature, 525(7570), S6-8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milhous, W. K., & Weina, P. J. (2010). Plant science. The botanical solution for malaria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5963), 279–280.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lampard, G. R., Macalister, C. A., & Bergmann, D. C. (2008). Arabidopsis stomatal initiation is controlled by MAPK-mediated regulation of the bHLH SPEECHLESS. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5904), 1113–1116.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sakulkhu, U., Mahmoudi, M., Maurizi, L., Salaklang, J., & Hofmann, H. (2014). Protein corona composition of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with various physico-chemical properties and coatings. Scientific Reports, 4, 5020.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeMaris, A. (2004). Regression with Social Data: Modeling Continuous and Limited Response Variables. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mitchell, G. R., & Tojeira, A. (Eds.). (2016). Controlling the Morphology of Polymers: Multiple Scales of Structure and Processing. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Beer, M. D., Alboul, L., Norling, E., & Wallis, P. (2013). Using Agents in Virtual Environments to Assist Controllers to Manage Multiple Assets. In F. Dignum, C. Brom, K. Hindriks, M. Beer, & D. Richards (Eds.), Cognitive Agents for Virtual Environments: First International Workshop, CAVE 2012, Held at AAMAS 2012, Valencia, Spain, June 4, 2012, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 55–69). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Criminal Justice Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, August 27). Watch This Amazing Self-Healing Material That Could Instantly Repair Damaged Spacecraft. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: An Assessment Guide--Exposure Draft (Superseded by AIMD-10.1.14) (No. 158206). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hogg, J. H. (2014). An assessment of social vulnerability in Yuba County, California [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. (2017, March 17). Edge or Liability? New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Owens, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Milhous & Weina, 2010; Owens, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milhous & Weina, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Lampard et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sakulkhu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Criminal Justice Education
AbbreviationJ. Crim. Justice Educ.
ISSN (print)1051-1253
ISSN (online)1745-9117

Other styles