How to format your references using the Journal of Criminal Justice Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Criminal Justice Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duffy, T. S. (2011). Earth science: probing the core’s light elements. Nature, 479(7374), 480–481.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hinde, K., & Lewis, Z. T. (2015). MICROBIOTA. Mother’s littlest helpers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6242), 1427–1428.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson, D. G., Burdick, J. A., & Langer, R. (2004). Materials science. Smart biomaterials. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5692), 1923–1924.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stoleru, D., Peng, Y., Agosto, J., & Rosbash, M. (2004). Coupled oscillators control morning and evening locomotor behaviour of Drosophila. Nature, 431(7010), 862–868.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nicholls, D. L., Piergrossi, J. C., Gibertoni, C. de S., & Daniel, M. A. (2013). Psychoanalytic Thinking in Occupational Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Al-Khalili, J., & Roeckl, E. (Eds.). (2006). The Euroschool Lectures on Physics with Exotic Beams, Vol. II (Vol. 700). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
D’Alessandro, C., & Léautier, F. (2016). Spaces of Leadership: The Weight of Location and Leadership Density in Spaces. In F. Léautier (Ed.), Cities and Spaces of Leadership: A Geographical Perspective (pp. 77–104). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Criminal Justice Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, June 8). What’s Hiding Underneath Jupiter’s Clouds? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Space Shuttle: NASA Must Reduce Costs Further to Operate Within Future Projected Funds (NSIAD-95-118). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stadalis, M. D. (2015). Development of a Conceptual Model and Instrument for Sustaining Successful School Reculturing and Reform Efforts [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, February 14). Whistling a Happy Tune in a Perverse Universe. New York Times, C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Duffy, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Duffy, 2011; Hinde & Lewis, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hinde & Lewis, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Anderson et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Stoleru et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Criminal Justice Education
AbbreviationJ. Crim. Justice Educ.
ISSN (print)1051-1253
ISSN (online)1745-9117

Other styles