How to format your references using the Journal of Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Poethig, R. S. (2003). Phase change and the regulation of developmental timing in plants. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5631), 334–336.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pisharody, S. N., & Jones, R. R. (2004). Probing two-electron dynamics of an atom. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5659), 813–815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, Y., Shi, Y., & Ding, S. (2008). A chemical approach to stem-cell biology and regenerative medicine. Nature, 453(7193), 338–344.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Olendorf, R., Rodd, F. H., Punzalan, D., Houde, A. E., Hurt, C., Reznick, D. N., & Hughes, K. A. (2006). Frequency-dependent survival in natural guppy populations. Nature, 441(7093), 633–636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Köhler, A., & Bässler, H. (2015). Electronic Processes in Organic Semiconductors. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Das, V. V., Ariwa, E., & Rahayu, S. B. (Eds.). (2012). Signal Processing and Information Technology: First International Joint Conference, SPIT 2011 and IPC 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, December 1-2, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 62). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stelzer, R., & Zavišin, J. (2015). Derivative Pricing under the Possibility of Long Memory in the supOU Stochastic Volatility Model. In K. Glau, M. Scherer, & R. Zagst (Eds.), Innovations in Quantitative Risk Management: TU München, September 2013 (pp. 75–92). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, January 30). Dark Humor Is Indicative Of A High IQ, According To Study. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Designation of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Computer Facility as a Federal Scientific Data Processing Center Could Save Millions (No. LCD-76-112). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bobadilla, J. (2014). Helping at-risk youth through a preventative program (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., & Story, L. (2011, May 9). Seeking Business, States Loosen Insurance Rules. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Poethig, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Pisharody & Jones, 2004; Poethig, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pisharody & Jones, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Xu, Shi, & Ding, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Olendorf et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Criminal Justice
AbbreviationJ. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)0047-2352
ScopeApplied Psychology
Social Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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