How to format your references using the Journal of Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padma, T. V. (2014). Developing countries: The outcomes paradox. Nature, 508(7494), S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, X., & Ha, T. (2013). Defining single molecular forces required to activate integrin and notch signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6135), 991–994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Balachandran, S., Thomas, E., & Barber, G. N. (2004). A FADD-dependent innate immune mechanism in mammalian cells. Nature, 432(7015), 401–405.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pommier, A., Anaparthy, N., Memos, N., Kelley, Z. L., Gouronnec, A., Yan, R., … Fearon, D. T. (2018). Unresolved endoplasmic reticulum stress engenders immune-resistant, latent pancreatic cancer metastases. Science (New York, N.Y.), 360(6394).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fant, K. M. (2005). Logically Determined Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Beletic, J. E., Beletic, J. W., & Amico, P. (Eds.). (2006). Scientific detectors for astronomy 2005: Explorers of the Photon Odyssey. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith, D. T., & Pratt, J. R. (2013). Measurement of the Gold-Gold Bond Rupture Force at 4 K in a Single-Atom Chain Using Photon-Momentum-Based Force Calibration. In G. A. Shaw, B. C. Prorok, & L. A. Starman (Eds.), MEMS and Nanotechnology, Volume 6: Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (pp. 25–29). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 10). Early Diagnosis Triples Cancer Survival Rates. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Educational Assistance for Institutionalized Neglected or Delinquent Children (No. 103697). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washburn, S. J. (2006). The Epiphytic Macrolichens of the Greater Cincinnati, Ohio, Metropolitan Area (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2007, February 22). Five Smart Moves and Five Big Mistakes. New York Times, p. F4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roberts, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hublin, 2013; Marx, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang & Ha, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Balachandran, Thomas, & Barber, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jiang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Criminal Justice
AbbreviationJ. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)0047-2352
ScopeApplied Psychology
Social Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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