How to format your references using the Journal of Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Corden, J. L. (2007). Transcription. Seven ups the code. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5857), 1735–1736.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kiermaier, E., & Sixt, M. (2015). IMMUNOLOGY. Fragmented communication between immune cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6252), 1055–1056.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rouse, G. W., Goffredi, S. K., & Vrijenhoek, R. C. (2004). Osedax: bone-eating marine worms with dwarf males. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5684), 668–671.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ishii, M., Shearer, P. M., Houston, H., & Vidale, J. E. (2005). Extent, duration and speed of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake imaged by the Hi-Net array. Nature, 435(7044), 933–936.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, P., & Marrongelle, K. (2012). Having Success with NSF. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Akiyama, J., Kano, M., & Sakai, T. (Eds.). (2013). Computational Geometry and Graphs: Thailand-Japan Joint Conference, TJJCCGG 2012, Bangkok, Thailand, December 6-8, 2012, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 8296). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ostwald, M. J., & Vaughan, J. (2016). Measuring Architecture. In J. Vaughan (Ed.), The Fractal Dimension of Architecture (pp. 67–85). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 20). This Headset Lets You Control Your TV Using The Power Of Your Mind. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Student Consolidation Loans: Further Analysis Could Lead to Enhanced Default Assumptions for Budgetary Cost Estimates (GAO-04-843). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Park, J. K. (2012). Target Identification, Therapeutic Application and Maturation Mechanism of microRNAs [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017, March 28). The Rise of Surreality TV. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Corden, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Corden, 2007; Kiermaier & Sixt, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kiermaier & Sixt, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Rouse et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ishii et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Criminal Justice
AbbreviationJ. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)0047-2352
ScopeApplied Psychology
Social Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles