How to format your references using the Journal of Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. (2003). Western Japan: Go west, young postdoc. Nature, 424(6946), 352–353.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nemoto, S., & Finkel, T. (2002). Redox regulation of forkhead proteins through a p66shc-dependent signaling pathway. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5564), 2450–2452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bartels, A., Heinecke, D., & Diddams, S. A. (2009). 10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5953), 681.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Robins, J. H., Ross, H. A., Allen, M. S., & Matisoo-Smith, E. (2006). Taxonomy: Sus bucculentus revisited. Nature, 440(7086), E7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ham, B. M. (2011). Proteomics of Biological Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nugent, C., Coronato, A., & Bravo, J. (Eds.). (2013). Ambient Assisted Living and Active Aging: 5th International Work-Conference, IWAAL 2013, Carrillo, Costa Rica, December 2-6, 2013, Proceedings (Vol. 8277). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Saakov, V. S., Krivchenko, A. I., Rozengart, E. V., & Danilova, I. G. (2015). Application of Derivative Spectrophotometry in Comparative Biochemical Studies. In A. I. Krivchenko, E. V. Rozengart, & I. G. Danilova (Eds.), Derivative Spectrophotometry and PAM-Fluorescence in Comparative Biochemistry (pp. 349–478). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 14). Researchers Are Developing GM Pigs For Animal-To-Human Organ Transplant. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Amtrak: Early Progress Made in Implementing Strategic and Business Plan, but Obstacles Remain (T-RCED-95-227). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garatli, A. A. (2014). What are the necessary skills for leading an online business in Saudi Arabia? [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., & Yaccino, S. (2013, June 18). In Embattled Detroit, No Talk of Sharing Pain Between Retirees and Bondholders. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2003; Nemoto & Finkel, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nemoto & Finkel, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Bartels et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Robins et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Criminal Justice
AbbreviationJ. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)0047-2352
ScopeApplied Psychology
Social Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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