How to format your references using the Journal of Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Manabe, T. (2002). Does BDNF have pre- or postsynaptic targets? Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5560), 1651–1653.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Connor, R. M., & Kenny, P. J. (2015). Neuroscience: Binge drinking and brain stress systems. Nature, 520(7546), 168–169.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hernlund, J. W., Thomas, C., & Tackley, P. J. (2005). A doubling of the post-perovskite phase boundary and structure of the Earth’s lowermost mantle. Nature, 434(7035), 882–886.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Erhard, K. F., Jr, Stonaker, J. L., Parkinson, S. E., Lim, J. P., Hale, C. J., & Hollick, J. B. (2009). RNA polymerase IV functions in paramutation in Zea mays. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5918), 1201–1205.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Godwin, W. (2013). International Construction Contracts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Friemel, T. N. (Ed.). (2008). Why Context Matters: Applications of Social Network Analysis. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
A chapter in an edited book
Halsnæs, K., Kaspersen, P. S., & Trærup, S. (2016). Climate Change Risks – Methodological Framework and Case Study of Damages from Extreme Events in Cambodia. In J. I. Uitto & R. Shaw (Eds.), Sustainable Development and Disaster Risk Reduction (pp. 71–85). Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Felton, J. (2017, June 5). Here’s How To Protect Your Privacy Online. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). K-12 Education: States’ Test Security Policies and Procedures Varied (GAO-13-495R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Madigan, J. P. (2008). Regulation of localization and function of the Rho family small GTPase, Rnd3 [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Valerian, S. (2013, November 6). The Long-Running Man. New York Times, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Manabe, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Manabe, 2002; O’Connor & Kenny, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Connor & Kenny, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Hernlund et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Erhard et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Criminal Justice
AbbreviationJ. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)0047-2352
ScopeApplied Psychology
Social Psychology
Sociology and Political Science

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