How to format your references using the Journal of Computational Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computational Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strittmatter WJ (2012) Medicine. Old drug, new hope for Alzheimer’s disease. Science 335:1447–1448
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans EA, Calderwood DA (2007) Forces and bond dynamics in cell adhesion. Science 316:1148–1153
A journal article with 3 authors
Ryu H-W, Park C-W, Ryu K-Y (2014) Disruption of polyubiquitin gene Ubb causes dysregulation of neural stem cell differentiation with premature gliogenesis. Sci Rep 4:7026
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jiang X, Århammar C, Liu P, et al (2013) The R3-carbon allotrope: a pathway towards glassy carbon under high pressure. Sci Rep 3:1877

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mahlberg R, Gilles A, Läsch A (2004) Hämatologie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Drebenstedt C, Singhal R (2014) Mine Planning and Equipment Selection: Proceedings of the 22nd MPES Conference, Dresden, Germany, 14th – 19th October 2013. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Brown SE, Chaikin PM, Naughton MJ (2008) La Tour des Sels de Bechgaard. In: Lebed A (ed) The Physics of Organic Superconductors and Conductors. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 49–87

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computational Surgery.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Misinformation On Social Media: Can Technology Save Us? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Bureau of Indian Education Schools: Improving Interior’s Assistance Would Help Some Tribal Groups Implement Academic Accountability Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bortle CD (2010) The role of mnemonic acronyms in clinical emergency medicine: A grounded theory study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED MJ (2017) Oscar Health and Humana Team Up in Small-Firm Venture. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computational Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Comput. Surg.
ISSN (online)2194-3990

Other styles