How to format your references using the Journal of Computational Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computational Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kawaler SD (2003) Astronomy. Taking the pulse of a massive star. Science 300:1885–1886
A journal article with 2 authors
Aratyn-Schaus Y, Gardel ML (2008) Biophysics. Clutch dynamics. Science 322:1646–1647
A journal article with 3 authors
Ledderose J, Dieter S, Schwarz MK (2013) Maturation of postnatally generated olfactory bulb granule cells depends on functional γ-protocadherin expression. Sci Rep 3:1514
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Scott RS, McMahon EJ, Pop SM, et al (2001) Phagocytosis and clearance of apoptotic cells is mediated by MER. Nature 411:207–211

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eisner H (2005) Managing Complex Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Sadowski T, Trovalusci P (2014) Multiscale Modeling of Complex Materials: Phenomenological, Theoretical and Computational Aspects, 1st ed. Springer, Vienna
A chapter in an edited book
Lemaire F, Ürgüplü A (2012) MABSys: Modeling and Analysis of Biological Systems. In: Horimoto K, Nakatsui M, Popov N (eds) Algebraic and Numeric Biology: 4th International Conference, ANB 2010, Hagenberg, Austria, July 31- August 2, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 57–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computational Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) Cassini Returns Stunning Image Of Saturn And Dione. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974) Improvement Needed In Documenting Computer Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson MW (2012) Angels in Tinseltown: Health insurance, hormone use, and HIV among transgender women in Los Angeles. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly J (2015) A Girl Wants to Know. New York Times BR18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computational Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Comput. Surg.
ISSN (online)2194-3990

Other styles