How to format your references using the Journal of Computational Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computational Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor G (2014) Astrophysics: A tight duo in a trio of black holes. Nature 511:35–37
A journal article with 2 authors
McGuinness LP, Jelezko F (2015) Quantum mechanics. Look but don’t touch the metals. Science 347:1073–1074
A journal article with 3 authors
Shuman ES, Barry JF, Demille D (2010) Laser cooling of a diatomic molecule. Nature 467:820–823
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shen B, Dong L, Xiao S, Kowalewski M (2008) The Avalon explosion: evolution of Ediacara morphospace. Science 319:81–84

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heller D (2011) Hairspray. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Nerad M (2014) Globalization and Its Impacts on the Quality of PhD Education: Forces and Forms in Doctoral Education Worldwide. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Müller A (2009) MALT Lymphoma: Clinicopathologic Features and Molecular Pathogenesis. In: Wang TC, Fox JG, Giraud AS (eds) The Biology of Gastric Cancers. Springer, New York, NY, pp 91–133

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computational Surgery.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Solar Impulse Plane Completes Record-Breaking Flight Around The World Powered Only By The Sun. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Financial Management: Federal Aviation Administration Lacked Accountability for Major Assets. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vado PF (2012) Foster Care Independence Act of 1999: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by (2005) Arts, Briefly; Ukrainian Song Rewritten for Eurovision Contest. New York Times E2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computational Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Comput. Surg.
ISSN (online)2194-3990

Other styles