How to format your references using the Journal of Computational Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computational Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huisman J (2010) Comment on “Patterns of diversity in marine phytoplankton.” Science 329:512; author reply 512
A journal article with 2 authors
Starr DA, Han M (2002) Role of ANC-1 in tethering nuclei to the actin cytoskeleton. Science 298:406–409
A journal article with 3 authors
Chabre M, Cone R, Saibil H (2003) Biophysics: is rhodopsin dimeric in native retinal rods? Nature 426:30–1; discussion 31
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Abe H, Jitsuki S, Nakajima W, et al (2018) CRMP2-binding compound, edonerpic maleate, accelerates motor function recovery from brain damage. Science 360:50–57

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGrath AE (2011) Luther’s Theology of the Cross. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Dubbink W, Liedekerke L van, Luijk H van (2011) European Business Ethics Casebook: The Morality of Corporate Decision Making. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Klopfleisch R (2016) Skin Tumors. In: Klopfleisch R (ed) Veterinary Oncology: A Short Textbook. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 59–97

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computational Surgery.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) A Mind-Bending Mirror Illusion Turns Circles Into Squares. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Computer Security: Unauthorized Access to a NASA Scientific Network. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robert LA (2015) The impact of community-based mentoring on African American boys using an attribution-retraining curriculum. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Christie R (2016) Trump and Black America. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computational Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Comput. Surg.
ISSN (online)2194-3990

Other styles