How to format your references using the Journal of Computational Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Computational Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Shea JN (2005) Applied physics. Enhanced: molecular orbitals tell the story. Science 310:453–454
A journal article with 2 authors
Lancaster MA, Knoblich JA (2014) Organogenesis in a dish: modeling development and disease using organoid technologies. Science 345:1247125
A journal article with 3 authors
Yin Y, Manoury B, Fåhraeus R (2003) Self-inhibition of synthesis and antigen presentation by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA1. Science 301:1371–1374
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tapper AR, McKinney SL, Nashmi R, et al (2004) Nicotine activation of alpha4* receptors: sufficient for reward, tolerance, and sensitization. Science 306:1029–1032

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’Homme R (2014) Flows and Chemical Reactions in Heterogeneous Mixtures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Constanda C, Pérez ME (2010) Integral Methods in Science and Engineering, Volume 2: Computational Aspects. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Browne IWA (2005) The Observational Properties of Blazars; Selection, Relationships and Unification. In: Mantovani F, Kus A (eds) The Role of VLBI in Astrophysics, Astrometry and Geodesy. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 83–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Computational Surgery.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Global Carbon Emissions Plateaued In 2015, According To BP. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) NASA’s Standard Parts Program--Are the Objectives Being Accomplished? U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moncur HB (2014) Exploring primary caregivers’ perceptions of the effects of secondhand marijuana smoke on children: A quantitative study. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2009) Sorting Out Their Goals, and Options. New York Times WE6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Computational Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Comput. Surg.
ISSN (online)2194-3990

Other styles