How to format your references using the Journal of Compassionate Health Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Compassionate Health Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ballentine CJ. Geochemistry. Tiny tracers tell tall tales. Science. 2002;296:1247–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hawker CJ, Wooley KL. The convergence of synthetic organic and polymer chemistries. Science. 2005;309:1200–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lezec HJ, Dionne JA, Atwater HA. Negative refraction at visible frequencies. Science. 2007;316:430–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Johnson N, Zhao G, Caycedo F, Manrique P, Qi H, Rodriguez F, et al. Extreme alien light allows survival of terrestrial bacteria. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Foote M, Hillier J, Mitchell-Wallace K, Jones M. Natural catastrophe risk management and modelling. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Gritzalis D, Lopez J, editors. Emerging Challenges for Security, Privacy and Trust: 24th IFIP TC 11 International Information Security Conference, SEC 2009, Pafos, Cyprus, May 18–20, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hay GJ, Castilla G. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA): A new name for a new discipline. In: Blaschke T, Lang S, Hay GJ, editors. Object-Based Image Analysis: Spatial Concepts for Knowledge-Driven Remote Sensing Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 75–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Compassionate Health Care.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Food For Thought: How Gut Bacteria Help Regulate Inflammation In The Brain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Employers’ Liability Act: Issues Associated With Changing How Railroad Work-Related Injuries Are Compensated. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Aug. Report No.: RCED-96-199.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lenz RM. Iron, Arsenic, and Elevated Salinity in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer of Louisiana [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Ortved J. Browsing for Denim. Or a Toothbrush. New York Times. 2017 May 4;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Compassionate Health Care
AbbreviationJ. Compassionate Health Care
ISSN (online)2053-2393

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