How to format your references using the Journal of Compassionate Health Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Compassionate Health Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chase JM. Stochastic community assembly causes higher biodiversity in more productive environments. Science. 2010;328:1388–91.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Nadeau JH, Dudley AM. Genetics. Systems genetics. Science. 2011;331:1015–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, O’Brien SJ. Genomics. Mmu 16--comparative genomic highlights. Science. 2002;296:1617–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang KC, Koprivica V, Kim JA, Sivasankaran R, Guo Y, Neve RL, et al. Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein is a Nogo receptor ligand that inhibits neurite outgrowth. Nature. 2002;417:941–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Killops S, Killops V. Introduction to Organic Geochemistry. Malden, MA USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Dilek Y, Furnes H, editors. Evolution of Archean Crust and Early Life. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Clover DE, Jayme B de O, Hall BL, Follen S. The Praxis of Environmental Adult Education. In: Jayme B de O, Hall BL, Follen S, editors. The Nature of Transformation: Environmental Adult Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2013. p. 43–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Compassionate Health Care.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Bad News, Arachnophobes: All Adults Have Facial Mites [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/bad-news-arachnophobes-all-adults-have-facial-mites/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Geographic Information System: Forest Service Has Resolved GAO Concerns About Its Proposed Nationwide System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Apr. Report No.: T-IMTEC-92-14.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bowmar JS. Building Energy Efficiency and Resilience in the United States, One Disaster at a Time: Fostering Green Building Principles through Disaster Assistance [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney K. On Tap: Beer and Conversation. New York Times. 2009 Sep 20;NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Compassionate Health Care
AbbreviationJ. Compassionate Health Care
ISSN (online)2053-2393
Scope

Other styles