How to format your references using the Journal of Compassionate Health Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Compassionate Health Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Martin EE. Earth science: Ocean circulation and rapid climate change. Nature. 2015;517:30–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Leek JT, Peng RD. Statistics: P values are just the tip of the iceberg. Nature. 2015;520:612.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Poolman B, Geertsma ER, Slotboom D-J. Biochemistry. A missing link in membrane protein evolution. Science. 2007;315:1229–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Scanlon TM, Caylor KK, Levin SA, Rodriguez-Iturbe I. Positive feedbacks promote power-law clustering of Kalahari vegetation. Nature. 2007;449:209–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ramirez J. Accounting for Derivatives. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2007.
An edited book
1. Xu Z. Surface Engineering of Polymer Membranes. Wan L, Huang X, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wintergerst U, Rosenzweig SD, Abinun M, Malech HL, Holland SM, Rezaei N. Phagocytes Defects. In: Rezaei N, Aghamohammadi A, Notarangelo LD, editors. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: Definition, Diagnosis, and Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 131–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Compassionate Health Care.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. A Moderate Solar Storm Is Hitting Earth As We Speak. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Gallaudet College and the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Jun. Report No.: 128886.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Glazer K. Imagining a constructionist game-based pedagogical model: Using tabletop role-playing game creation to enhance literature education in high school English classes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. The Luckiest Man on Earth. New York Times. 2017 Jun 9;BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Compassionate Health Care
AbbreviationJ. Compassionate Health Care
ISSN (online)2053-2393
Scope

Other styles