How to format your references using the Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C.D. Fiorillo, Two dimensions of value: dopamine neurons represent reward but not aversiveness, Science. 341 (2013) 546–549.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Schink, M. Friedrich, Phosphite oxidation by sulphate reduction, Nature. 406 (2000) 37.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Passier, L.W. van Laake, C.L. Mummery, Stem-cell-based therapy and lessons from the heart, Nature. 453 (2008) 322–329.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.J. Boland, J.L. Hazen, K.L. Nazor, A.R. Rodriguez, W. Gifford, G. Martin, S. Kupriyanov, K.K. Baldwin, Adult mice generated from induced pluripotent stem cells, Nature. 461 (2009) 91–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.R. Upreti, Process Modeling and Simulation for Chemical Engineers, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2017.
An edited book
P.B. Gahan, M. Fleischhacker, B. Schmidt, eds., Circulating Nucleic Acids in Serum and Plasma – CNAPS IX, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Qasim, O. Hasan, M. Elleuch, S. Tahar, Formalization of Normal Random Variables in HOL, in: M. Kohlhase, M. Johansson, B. Miller, L. de Moura, F. Tompa (Eds.), Intelligent Computer Mathematics: 9th International Conference, CICM 2016, Bialystok, Poland, July 25-29, 2016, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 44–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Old Mice Drinking Champagne Three Times A Week Navigate Labyrinths Better, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Highway Contracting: Disadvantaged Business Program Meets Contract Goal, but Refinements Are Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.C. Norton, Elementary ESL and General Education Co-Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Co-Teaching Roles: A Mixed Methods Study, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.M. Nir, M. Haag, Charter Bus Slams Into a City Bus at a Busy Queens Intersection, Killing 3, New York Times. (2017) A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
AbbreviationComput. Methods Programs Biomed.
ISSN (print)0169-2607
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Health Informatics

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