How to format your references using the Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Solis, Prevention: Before the break, Nature. 508 (2014) S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
W. Li, R.T. Chetelat, A pollen factor linking inter- and intraspecific pollen rejection in tomato, Science. 330 (2010) 1827–1830.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.Z. Tasker, E.A. Standley, T.F. Jamison, Recent advances in homogeneous nickel catalysis, Nature. 509 (2014) 299–309.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
I.D. Hughes, M. Däne, A. Ernst, W. Hergert, M. Lüders, J. Poulter, J.B. Staunton, A. Svane, Z. Szotek, W.M. Temmerman, Lanthanide contraction and magnetism in the heavy rare earth elements, Nature. 446 (2007) 650–653.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Hein, W. Kunze, Umweltanalytik mit Spektrometrie und Chromatographie, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
N. de Vries, M. Ravesloot, J.P. van Maanen, eds., Positional Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Seki, T. Matano, Development of Vaccines Using SeV Vectors Against AIDS and Other Infectious Diseases, in: Y. Nagai (Ed.), Sendai Virus Vector: Advantages and Applications, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2013: pp. 127–149.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine.

Blog post
T. Hale, This Massive Floating Robot Looks Awesomely Awkward, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Station: Program Instability and Cost Growth Continue Pending Redesign, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Cai, 3D Numerical Modeling of Dry/Wet Contact Mechanics for Rough, Multilayered Elastic-Plastic Solid Surfaces and Effects of Hydrophilicity/Hydrophobicity During Separation with Applications, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, Scent Notes: The Citrus Aroma of the Season, New York Times. (2016) ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
AbbreviationComput. Methods Programs Biomed.
ISSN (print)0169-2607
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Health Informatics

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