How to format your references using the Journal of Communication Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Communication Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leith, W. (2004). Geology. Building for earthquakes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5677), 1604.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guy-Grand, D., & Vassalli, P. (2004). Immunology. Tracing an orphan’s genealogy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5681), 185–187.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gess, R. W., Coates, M. I., & Rubidge, B. S. (2006). A lamprey from the Devonian period of South Africa. Nature, 443(7114), 981–984.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wilke, C. O., Wang, J. L., Ofria, C., Lenski, R. E., & Adami, C. (2001). Evolution of digital organisms at high mutation rates leads to survival of the flattest. Nature, 412(6844), 331–333.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lau, V. K. N., & Ricky Kwok, Y.-K. (2006). Channel-Adaptive Technologies and Cross-Layer Designs for Wireless Systems with Multiple Antennas. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Naghavi, M. (Ed.). (2011). Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis: Pathophysiology, Detection and Treatment. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Arnaiz, A., Iung, B., Al-Najjar, B., Jantunen, E., Holmberg, K., Naks, T., & Baglee, D. (2010). A New Integrated E-maintenance Concept. In K. Holmberg, A. Adgar, A. Arnaiz, E. Jantunen, J. Mascolo, & S. Mekid (Eds.), E-maintenance (pp. 61–82). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Communication Disorders.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, January 12). Nike Set To Release Self-Lacing “Back To The Future” Shoes. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Social Security Administration: Update on Year 2000 and Other Key Information Technology Initiatives (No. T-AIMD-99-259). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pak, C. H. (2015). A study of high-performing at-risk high school students and their perceptions on academic success and achievement (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walker, M. (2017, June 8). Choosing Photographs Over Paintings. New York Times, p. C14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leith, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Guy-Grand & Vassalli, 2004; Leith, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guy-Grand & Vassalli, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Gess, Coates, & Rubidge, 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wilke, Wang, Ofria, Lenski, & Adami, 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Communication Disorders
AbbreviationJ. Commun. Disord.
ISSN (print)0021-9924
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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