How to format your references using the Journal of Communication Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Communication Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pain, E. (2008). Science careers. Playing well with industry. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5869), 1548–1551.
A journal article with 2 authors
Basler, M., & Mekalanos, J. J. (2012). Type 6 secretion dynamics within and between bacterial cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6096), 815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bergquist, D. C., Williams, F. M., & Fisher, C. R. (2000). Longevity record for deep-sea invertebrate. Nature, 403(6769), 499–500.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Navarro, L., Dunoyer, P., Jay, F., Arnold, B., Dharmasiri, N., Estelle, M., Voinnet, O., & Jones, J. D. G. (2006). A plant miRNA contributes to antibacterial resistance by repressing auxin signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5772), 436–439.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pagliaro, M. (2010). Nano-Age. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Moss, G. P. (2015). Predictive Methods in Percutaneous Absorption (D. R. Gullick & S. C. Wilkinson, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ifeme, C. V. (2016). Diagnosing the Politics of Christian-Muslim Conflicts in the West African Sub-Region: Going beyond the Western Paradigm. In L. D. Lefebure (Ed.), Religion, Authority, and the State: From Constantine to the Contemporary World (pp. 75–99). Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Communication Disorders.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 30). Japanese Laboratory Fires World’s Most Powerful Laser. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Passenger Rail Security: Federal Strategy and Enhanced Coordination Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts (GAO-07-459T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shah, S. K. (2017). Data Transmission Using Image Steganography in Quick Response (QR) Code [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, December 6). Jeter Deal Done; Now Comes Hard Part. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pain, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Basler & Mekalanos, 2012; Pain, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Basler & Mekalanos, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Bergquist et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Navarro et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Communication Disorders
AbbreviationJ. Commun. Disord.
ISSN (print)0021-9924
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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