How to format your references using the Journal of Communication Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Communication Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hedström, P. (2006). Sociology. Experimental macro sociology: predicting the next best seller. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5762), 786–787.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson, D. W. J., & Barnes, E. A. (2014). Periodic variability in the large-scale Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6171), 641–645.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merlin, C., Gegear, R. J., & Reppert, S. M. (2009). Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5948), 1700–1704.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Williams, T. J., Pepitone, M. E., Christensen, S. E., Cooke, B. M., Huberman, A. D., Breedlove, N. J., Breedlove, T. J., Jordan, C. L., & Breedlove, S. M. (2000). Finger-length ratios and sexual orientation. Nature, 404(6777), 455–456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Calvello, A. A. (2009). Environmental Alpha. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Horváth, Z., Plasmeijer, R., Soós, A., & Zsók, V. (Eds.). (2008). Central European Functional Programming School: Second Summer School, CEFP 2007, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, June 23-30, 2007, Revised Selected Lectures (Vol. 5161). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sosík, P. (2014). Active Membranes, Proteins on Membranes, Tissue P Systems: Complexity-Related Issues and Challenges. In A. Alhazov, S. Cojocaru, M. Gheorghe, Y. Rogozhin, G. Rozenberg, & A. Salomaa (Eds.), Membrane Computing: 14th International Conference, CMC 2013, Chişinău, Republic of Moldova, August 20-23, 2013, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 40–55). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Communication Disorders.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, October 29). Artistic Squirrel Carves His Own Jack-O-Lantern. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Ways To Improve Management of Automated Data Processing Resources (LCD-74-110). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueller, C. (2012). A Multidimensional Perspective of Faculty Mentoring and Job Satisfaction during the First Year of Teaching at Lindenwood University [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, March 18). Free-Speech Case Divides Bush and Religious Right. New York Times, A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hedström, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hedström, 2006; Thompson & Barnes, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson & Barnes, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Merlin et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Williams et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Communication Disorders
AbbreviationJ. Commun. Disord.
ISSN (print)0021-9924
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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