How to format your references using the Journal of Communication Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Communication Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King, D. (2010). Spending review leaves research in the lurch. Nature, 467(7319), 1007.
A journal article with 2 authors
You, J. Q., & Nori, F. (2011). Atomic physics and quantum optics using superconducting circuits. Nature, 474(7353), 589–597.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ooi, S. L., Shoemaker, D. D., & Boeke, J. D. (2001). A DNA microarray-based genetic screen for nonhomologous end-joining mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5551), 2552–2556.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mees, A., Klar, T., Gnau, P., Hennecke, U., Eker, A. P. M., Carell, T., & Essen, L.-O. (2004). Crystal structure of a photolyase bound to a CPD-like DNA lesion after in situ repair. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5702), 1789–1793.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jackson, J. (2012). Political Oratory and Cartooning. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gertz, M. A., & Rajkumar, S. V. (Eds.). (2010). Amyloidosis: Diagnosis and Treatment. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Kalyebara, B., & Islam, S. M. N. (2014). Discounted Cash Flow for In S. M. N. Islam (Ed.), Corporate Governance, Capital Markets, and Capital Budgeting: An Integrated Approach (pp. 75–106). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Communication Disorders.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 25). Robot Survey Suggests Antarctic Sea Ice Is Thicker And More Deformed Than Previously Believed. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Preparing, Documenting, and Referencing Lotus Spreadsheets (134610). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevenson, M. (2008). A change for the future: Presidents and deans real and ideal leadership practices at community and junior colleges in Mississippi [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., & Haberman, M. (2017, August 15). Trump Again Says Two Sides at Fault in Rally Violence. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (King, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (King, 2010; You & Nori, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (You & Nori, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Ooi et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mees et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Communication Disorders
AbbreviationJ. Commun. Disord.
ISSN (print)0021-9924
ScopeCognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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