How to format your references using the Journal of Co-operative Organization and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Co-operative Organization and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gould, P. (2002). Portraits of science. Two good women, or too good to be true? Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5574), 1805–1806.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sykes, M., & Nikolic, B. (2005). Treatment of severe autoimmune disease by stem-cell transplantation. Nature, 435(7042), 620–627.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sambanis, N., Schulhofer-Wohl, J., & Shayo, M. (2012). Social psychology. Parochialism as a central challenge in counterinsurgency. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6083), 805–808.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Eustis, S. N., Radisic, D., Bowen, K. H., Bachorz, R. A., Haranczyk, M., Schenter, G. K., & Gutowski, M. (2008). Electron-driven acid-base chemistry: proton transfer from hydrogen chloride to ammonia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5865), 936–939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. (2003). Guidelines for Investigating Chemical Process Incidents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pettersson, P., & Yi, W. (Eds.). (2005). Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems: Third International Conference, FORMATS 2005, Uppsala, Sweden, September 26-28, 2005. Proceedings (Vol. 3829). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shmaliy, Y. (2007). LTI Systems in the Frequency Domain (Transform Analysis). In Y. Shmaliy (Ed.), Continuous-Time Systems (pp. 239–347). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Co-operative Organization and Management.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 15). Millions Rely On Cheap Cloth Masks That May Provide Little Protection Against Deadly Air Pollution. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Working Comfortably With Video Display Terminals (No. 144505). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goshin, L. S. (2010). Behavior Problems and Competence in Preschoolers Who Spent Their First One to Eighteen Months in a Prison Nursery Program [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2007, August 7). In a Hospital Stay, No Time to Rest. New York Times, F5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gould, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gould, 2002; Sykes & Nikolic, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sykes & Nikolic, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Sambanis et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Eustis et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Co-operative Organization and Management
ISSN (print)2213-297X

Other styles