How to format your references using the Computers and Geotechnics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Geotechnics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check E. Gene therapy: shining hopes dented - but not dashed. Nature 2002;420:735.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mendelson TC, Shaw KL. Sexual behaviour: rapid speciation in an arthropod. Nature 2005;433:375–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conard NJ, Grootes PM, Smith FH. Unexpectedly recent dates for human remains from Vogelherd. Nature 2004;430:198–201.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Roach PJ, Woodward WH, Castleman AW Jr, Reber AC, Khanna SN. Complementary active sites cause size-selective reactivity of aluminum cluster anions with water. Science 2009;323:492–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kramer-Moore D, Moore M. Destructive Myths in Family Therapy. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Liberty J. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Bäck T, Foussette C, Krause P. Summary. In: Foussette C, Krause P, editors. Contemporary Evolution Strategies, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 85–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Geotechnics.

Blog post
Fang J. Eagle Flight Recorder Reveals Clever Wing Tuck Trick. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Launch System: Resources Need to be Matched to Requirements to Decrease Risk and Support Long Term Affordability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wells RE. Managers’ affective expressions as determinants of employee responses to change: Valence, inappropriateness and authenticity. Doctoral dissertation. Columbia University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. Bewitched by the Tesla Story. New York Times 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Geotechnics
AbbreviationComput. Geotech.
ISSN (print)0266-352X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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