How to format your references using the Computers and Geotechnics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Geotechnics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCune JM. The dynamics of CD4+ T-cell depletion in HIV disease. Nature 2001;410:974–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheffield MEJ, Dombeck DA. Calcium transient prevalence across the dendritic arbour predicts place field properties. Nature 2015;517:200–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wittkopp PJ, Haerum BK, Clark AG. Evolutionary changes in cis and trans gene regulation. Nature 2004;430:85–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bernard C, Anderson A, Becker A, Poolos NP, Beck H, Johnston D. Acquired dendritic channelopathy in temporal lobe epilepsy. Science 2004;305:532–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rogstad DH, Mileant A, Pham TT. Antenna Arraying Techniques in the Deep Space Network. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Rachůnková I. State-Dependent Impulses: Boundary Value Problems on Compact Interval. vol. 6. 1st ed. 2015. Paris: Atlantis Press; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Colombini M. Ceramide Channels. In: Delcour AH, editor. Electrophysiology of Unconventional Channels and Pores, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 75–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Geotechnics.

Blog post
Fang J. Male Fiddler Crabs Use Vibrations To Lure Females Into Burrows. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Line-item Control of Contractors’ Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hensley AL. Gender, personality, and coping: Unraveling gender in military post -deployment physical and mental wellness. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. In Open-Plan Offices, a Place for Inside-the-Box Thinking. New York Times 2017:A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Geotechnics
AbbreviationComput. Geotech.
ISSN (print)0266-352X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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