How to format your references using the Computers and Geotechnics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Geotechnics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hunt ML. Applied physics. Robotic walking in the real world. Science 2013;339:1389–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
Embley TM, Williams TA. Evolution: Steps on the road to eukaryotes. Nature 2015;521:169–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reynolds AM, Leprêtre L, Bohan DA. Movement patterns of Tenebrio beetles demonstrate empirically that correlated-random-walks have similitude with a Lévy walk. Sci Rep 2013;3:3158.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Götz J, Chen F, van Dorpe J, Nitsch RM. Formation of neurofibrillary tangles in P301l tau transgenic mice induced by Abeta 42 fibrils. Science 2001;293:1491–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Langton R. Stability and Control of Aircraft Systems. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Hart WE. Pyomo – Optimization Modeling in Python. vol. 67. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Cherifi C, Labatut V, Santucci J-F. On Flexible Web Services Composition Networks. In: Cherifi H, Zain JM, El-Qawasmeh E, editors. Digital Information and Communication Technology and Its Applications: International Conference, DICTAP 2011, Dijon, France, June 21-23, 2011. Proceedings, Part I, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 45–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Geotechnics.

Blog post
Luntz S. Cuckoos Use Mafia Tactics, And They Work. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Law Enforcement Block Grant Awards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang E. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Investigation of the Coyote Mountain Shear Zone. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Santora M. Crash Kills 3 College Students on Medical Mission in Honduras. New York Times 2016:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Geotechnics
AbbreviationComput. Geotech.
ISSN (print)0266-352X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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