How to format your references using the Computers and Geotechnics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Geotechnics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buchanan M. Physics in finance: Trading at the speed of light. Nature 2015;518:161–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wentz FJ, Schabel M. Precise climate monitoring using complementary satellite data sets. Nature 2000;403:414–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conway SL, Shinbrot T, Glasser BJ. A Taylor vortex analogy in granular flows. Nature 2004;431:433–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yonemitsu T, Kuroki C, Takahashi N, Mori Y, Kanmura Y, Kashiwadani H, et al. TRPA1 detects environmental chemicals and induces avoidance behavior and arousal from sleep. Sci Rep 2013;3:3100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor B. Effective Environmental, Health, and Safety Management Using the Team Approach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Sinha CK, Davenport M, editors. Handbook of Pediatric Surgery. London: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Sato T, Kawamura Y, Yamaki K, Ishida N, Tian L, Takeuchi Y, et al. Oral Microbiota in Crevices Around Dental Implants: Profiling of Oral Biofilm. In: Sasaki K, Suzuki O, Takahashi N, editors. Interface Oral Health Science 2014: Innovative Research on Biosis-Abiosis Intelligent Interface, Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015, p. 45–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Geotechnics.

Blog post
Andrew E. GM Mosquitoes Set To Be Released In Brazil To Combat Dengue. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Federal and State Universal Service Programs and Challenges to Funding. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mbwiri FI. Remedial Math Instruction Intervention: Efficacy of Constructivist Practices on Alternative Students with Disabilities Mathematics Achievement. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. For New Court, Abortion Case Takes Old Path. New York Times 2005:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Geotechnics
AbbreviationComput. Geotech.
ISSN (print)0266-352X
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles