How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bruins HJ. Anthropology. Dating Pharaonic Egypt. Science. 2010;328:1489-1490.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Johansson MEV, Hansson GC. Microbiology. Keeping bacteria at a distance. Science. 2011;334:182-183.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Mora C, Rollo A, Tittensor DP. Comment on “Can we name Earth’s species before they go extinct?” Science. 2013;341:237.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Xu Z, Liu Y, Ma Z, Sam Toloo G, Hu W, Tong S. Assessment of the temperature effect on childhood diarrhea using satellite imagery. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5389.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Mazze RS, Strock ES, Bergenstal RM, et al. Staged Diabetes Management. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Langenhan T, Schöneberg T, eds. Adhesion G Protein-coupled Receptors: Molecular, Physiological and Pharmacological Principles in Health and Disease. Vol 234. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Stokowski PA. Organizational Cultures and Place-Based Conservation. In: Stewart WP, Williams DR, Kruger LE, eds. Place-Based Conservation: Perspectives from the Social Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013:45-58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J. 5 Of The Most Frightening Moments In The History Of Spaceflight. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/5-most-hair-raising-moments-history-spaceflight/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Continuing Risks of Disruption to Social Security, Medicare, and Treasury Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Baghdadi M. A comparison of gender representation in English (EFL) and Arabic (AFL) textbooks in Iran: A critical discourse analysis. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Davis JH. A Complex Relationship Has an Abrupt Ending. New York Times. May 10, 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Sleep Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Sleep Med.
ISSN (print)1550-9389
ISSN (online)1550-9397
ScopeClinical Neurology
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Neurology

Other styles