How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kielpinski D. Quantum physics: Quantum sound waves stick together. Nature. 2015;527:45-46.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Baumann P, Cech TR. Pot1, the putative telomere end-binding protein in fission yeast and humans. Science. 2001;292:1171-1175.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Coussens LM, Fingleton B, Matrisian LM. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors and cancer: trials and tribulations. Science. 2002;295:2387-2392.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Rezayi M, Karazhian R, Abdollahi Y, et al. Titanium (III) cation selective electrode based on synthesized tris(2pyridyl) methylamine ionophore and its application in water samples. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4664.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Welker RW, Nagarajan R, Newberg CE. Contamination and ESD Control in High-Technology Manufacturing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Shimada Y, Miyakoshi N, eds. Osteoporosis in Orthopedics: Assessment and Therapeutic Options. 1st ed. 2016. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gentili G, Di Napoli M. Wrist, Elbow, Axilla – Hand. In: Di Napoli M, ed. The Median Nerve: Motor Conduction Studies. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:17-20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Andrews R. Climate Change Prevention Info Is Disappearing From The EPA’s Website. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/climate-change-prevention-info-disappearing-epa-website/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Federal Assistance Provided to Institutions of Higher Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bonin C. Spatial and temporal characteristics of electromagnetic activity in the brain prior to reaches to visual targets. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Billard M. Old Is Good, Cheaper Is Better. New York Times. April 15, 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Sleep Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Sleep Med.
ISSN (print)1550-9389
ISSN (online)1550-9397
ScopeClinical Neurology
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Neurology

Other styles