How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Weeks ER. Materials science. Melting colloidal crystals from the inside out. Science. 2012;338:55-56.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Whitesides GM, Crabtree GW. Don’t forget long-term fundamental research in energy. Science. 2007;315:796-798.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Tsushima Y, Sasaki Y, Watanabe T. Greater disruption due to failure of inhibitory control on an ambiguous distractor. Science. 2006;314:1786-1788.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Tarricone C, Xiao B, Justin N, et al. The structural basis of Arfaptin-mediated cross-talk between Rac and Arf signalling pathways. Nature. 2001;411:215-219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Molino Sr. LN. Emergency Incident Management Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1.
Zhao M, Sha J, eds. Communications and Information Processing: International Conference, ICCIP 2012 Aveiro, Portugal, March 7-11, 2012 Revised Selected Papers, Part I. Vol 288. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Malagù C, Carotta MC, Giberti A, Guidi V, Martinelli G. Conductance Variation Under UV: A Surface Barrier Modification. In: Neri G, Donato N, d’Amico A, Di Natale C, eds. Sensors and Microsystems: AISEM 2010 Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011:39-42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A. A Clue To How Supermassive Black Holes Heat Up Galaxies And Kill Stars. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/clue-how-supermassive-black-holes-heats-galaxies-and-kill-stars/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Major Factors Inhibit Expansion of the School Breakfast Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Gillaspy KM. Words of Samsara. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Urbina I. Video Captures 4 Murders, but Killers Go Unpunished. New York Times. July 20, 2015:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Sleep Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Sleep Med.
ISSN (print)1550-9389
ISSN (online)1550-9397
ScopeClinical Neurology
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Neurology

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