How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Linsky JL. Astronomy. Voyagers of discovery. Science. 2011;334:1647-1648.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roth S, Panfilio KA. Development. Making waves for segments. Science. 2012;336:306-307.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hays GC, Houghton JDR, Myers AE. Endangered species: Pan-Atlantic leatherback turtle movements. Nature. 2004;429:522.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xin H, Zhang Y, Lei H, Li Y, Zhang H, Li B. Optofluidic realization and retaining of cell-cell contact using an abrupt tapered optical fibre. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1993.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyatkher VM. Seismic Loads. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Biesta G, De Bie M, Wildemeersch D, eds. Civic Learning, Democratic Citizenship and the Public Sphere. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Arzarello F, Dané C, Lovera L, Mosca M, Nolli N, Ronco A. Geometria sul cono. In: Dané C, Lovera L, Mosca M, Nolli N, Ronco A, eds. Dalla Geometria Di Euclide Alla Geometria Dell’Universo: Geometria Su Sfera, Cilindro, Cono, Pseudosfera. Milano: Springer; 2012:69-88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. New 600-Million-Year-Old Fossil is the World’s Oldest Sponge. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Aviation: Raising Passenger Facility Charges Would Increase Airport Funding, but Other Effects Less Certain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hutsell JD. School board members’ perception on their roles and responsibilities in developing policy that affects student achievement. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Fear, Frustration and Fascination: Sharapova on Serena. New York Times. September 11, 2017:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Sleep Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Sleep Med.
ISSN (print)1550-9389
ISSN (online)1550-9397
ScopeClinical Neurology
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles