How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lovelock J. Gaia: the living Earth. Nature. 2003;426(6968):769-770.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson PA, Norris RD. Warm tropical ocean surface and global anoxia during the mid-Cretaceous period. Nature. 2001;412(6845):425-429.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCulloh KA, Sperry JS, Adler FR. Water transport in plants obeys Murray’s law. Nature. 2003;421(6926):939-942.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li Y, Guo Q, Kalb JA, Thompson CV. Matching glass-forming ability with the density of the amorphous phase. Science. 2008;322(5909):1816-1819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulinkovich OG. Cyclopropanes in Organic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Bastos MA, Lebre A, Samko S, Spitkovsky IM, eds. Operator Theory, Operator Algebras and Applications. Vol 242. Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Behnke S, Müller J, Schreiber M. Playing Soccer with RoboSapien. In: Bredenfeld A, Jacoff A, Noda I, Takahashi Y, eds. RoboCup 2005: Robot Soccer World Cup IX. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2006:36-48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma.

Blog post
Andrew D. How Three-Day Weekends Can Help Save The World (And Us Too). IFLScience. Published August 30, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Government Programs and Organization Affecting Exports. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robertson O. Gender and Crew Resource Management: A Phenomenological Qualitative Study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. On Court That Defied Labeling, Kennedy Made the Boldest Mark. New York Times. June 29, 2008:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Orthop. Trauma
ISSN (print)0976-5662
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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