How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kaiser J. ECOLOGY: When Do Many Species Matter? Science. 2000;289(5483):1283.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ghosh B, Urban MW. Self-repairing oxetane-substituted chitosan polyurethane networks. Science. 2009;323(5920):1458-1460.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
van Groenigen KJ, Osenberg CW, Hungate BA. Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2. Nature. 2011;475(7355):214-216.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Hoffman N, Knauth LP, Klonowski S, et al. Ideas about the surface runoff features on Mars. Science. 2000;290(5492):711c-714c.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Mazar Madjar H. Radio Spectrum Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Nickerson AB. Identifying, Assessing, and Treating PTSD at School. Vol 2. (Reeves MA, Brock SE, Jimerson SR, eds.). Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Baets KD, Landman NH, Tanabe K. Ammonoid Embryonic Development. In: Klug C, Korn D, De Baets K, Kruta I, Mapes RH, eds. Ammonoid Paleobiology: From Anatomy to Ecology. Topics in Geobiology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015:113-205.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Invertebrates inject a bit of romance during sex – by stabbing each other. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/invertebrates-inject-bit-romance-during-sex-–-stabbing-each-other/. Published June 26, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger and Freight Rail: Better Data and Communication of Uncertainties Can Help Decision Makers Understand Benefits and Trade-Offs of Programs and Policies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Michaels JL. Changing cooperation to competition disrupts attitudes and valence: First test of a dynamical model. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Pilon M. Dog’s Death After Westminster Has Handler Suspecting It Wasn’t an Accident. New York Times. February 28, 2013:B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Orthop. Trauma
ISSN (print)0976-5662
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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