How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Heath MR. Comment on “A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems.” Science. 2008;321(5895):1446; author reply 1446.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Cheetham CE, Belluscio L. Neuroscience. An olfactory critical period. Science. 2014;344(6180):157-158.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ganem NJ, Godinho SA, Pellman D. A mechanism linking extra centrosomes to chromosomal instability. Nature. 2009;460(7252):278-282.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Shimizu K, Kimura T, Furomoto S, et al. Superconductivity in the non-magnetic state of iron under pressure. Nature. 2001;412(6844):316-318.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Pearson D, Grace C. Weight Management. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Setubal JC, Verjovski-Almeida S, eds. Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2005, Sao Leopoldo, Brazil, July 27-29, 2005. Proceedings. Vol 3594. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Candilis PJ, Weinstock R, Martinez R. Robust Professionalism: Beyond Role. In: Weinstock R, Martinez R, eds. Forensic Ethics and the Expert Witness. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007:97-122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma.

Blog post
1.
Andrews R. Scientists Successfully Convert Waste Plastic Into Fuel. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/scientists-successfully-convert-waste-plastic-fuel/. Published June 20, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Potential for Widespread Disruption Calls for Strong Leadership and Partnerships. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Born KB. Student and Principal Perceptions of the California High School Proficiency Examination in Community Schools: A Case Study. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Bray C. Barclays Charged in Qatar Fund-Raising. New York Times. June 20, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Orthop. Trauma
ISSN (print)0976-5662
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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