How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stafford N. Turbulent times. Nature. 2006;443(7110):385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fernandez JM, Li H. Force-clamp spectroscopy monitors the folding trajectory of a single protein. Science. 2004;303(5664):1674-1678.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmittner A, Yoshimori M, Weaver AJ. Instability of glacial climate in a model of the ocean- atmosphere-cryosphere system. Science. 2002;295(5559):1489-1493.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Karski M, Förster L, Choi J-M, et al. Quantum walk in position space with single optically trapped atoms. Science. 2009;325(5937):174-177.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matignon R. Data Mining Using SAS® Enterprise MinerTM. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Salah AA, Kröse BJA, Cook DJ, eds. Human Behavior Understanding: 6th International Workshop, HBU 2015, Osaka, Japan, September 8, 2015, Proceedings. Vol 9277. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ong S-B. Imaging of Mitochondrial Disorders: A Review. In: Hum YC, Mohamad Salim MI, Ong S-B, et al., eds. Advances in Medical Diagnostic Technology. Lecture Notes in Bioengineering. Springer; 2014:99-136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma.

Blog post
Andrew E. Brains Work Via Their Genes Just As Much As Their Neurons. IFLScience. Published October 18, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Report Entitled “The Federal Program To Strengthen Developing Institutions of Higher Education Lacks Direction.” U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cooper T. Biting Animals. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. On Spectrum of Extremism, Far Left Takes Relatively Little Space. New York Times. August 15, 2017:A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Orthop. Trauma
ISSN (print)0976-5662
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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