How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Prieto GA. Geophysics. Imaging the deep Earth. Science. 2012;338(6110):1037-1038.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Tam WY, Ma CHE. Bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are proliferating microglia with distinct M1/M2 phenotypes. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7279.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Cerda E, Ravi-Chandar K, Mahadevan L. Thin films. Wrinkling of an elastic sheet under tension. Nature. 2002;419(6907):579-580.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Braddock DT, Louis JM, Baber JL, Levens D, Clore GM. Structure and dynamics of KH domains from FBP bound to single-stranded DNA. Nature. 2002;415(6875):1051-1056.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Rees H. Supply Chain Management in the Drug Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Prouff E, Schaumont P, eds. Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems – CHES 2012: 14th International Workshop, Leuven, Belgium, September 9-12, 2012. Proceedings. Vol 7428. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Dupont C, Kalach N, Rousseau V. Gastrointestinal Problems of the Newborn. In: Guandalini S, Dhawan A, Branski D, eds. Textbook of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition: A Comprehensive Guide to Practice. Springer International Publishing; 2016:41-52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma.

Blog post
1.
Andrews R. Dogs Dream Of You While Cats Dream Of Death. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. An Incident of Contamination of Livestock Feed and Certain Consumer Products. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Jones E. Leadership Practices in K-12 Public Schools for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students: A Qualitative Study. Published online 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Wines M, Kovaleski SF. Marathon Bombing Suspect Waits in Isolation. New York Times. April 15, 2014:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Orthop. Trauma
ISSN (print)0976-5662
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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