How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Heritage J. Plant sciences. Will GM rapeseed cut the mustard? Science. 2003;302:401–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Burrows M, Sutton G. Interacting gears synchronize propulsive leg movements in a jumping insect. Science. 2013;341:1254–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zarrinpar A, Park S-H, Lim WA. Optimization of specificity in a cellular protein interaction network by negative selection. Nature. 2003;426:676–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Siwick BJ, Dwyer JR, Jordan RE, Miller RJD. An atomic-level view of melting using femtosecond electron diffraction. Science. 2003;302:1382–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Cahill TH. Low Impact Development and Sustainable Stormwater Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Abdi AA, Shultz L, Pillay T, editors. Decolonizing Global Citizenship Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lo J-J, Ji N-W, Syu Y-H, You W-J, Chen Y-T. Developing a Digital Game-Based Situated Learning System for Ocean Ecology. In: Pan Z, Cheok AD, Müller W, Rhalibi AE, editors. Transactions on Edutainment I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 51–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Blue Whale Spotted Tangled In Fishing Line Off Southern Californian Coast. IFLScience. 2015. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Polar Weather Satellites: NOAA Needs To Prepare for Near-term Data Gaps [Reissued on January 16, 2015]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bernstine JT. Experiences of Students Transferring from Community and Technical Colleges to a Private Nonprofit University. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. For Hughes, Gold Medal Never Trumped Family Life. New York Times. 2010;:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Bioinformatics
ISSN (print)2043-9113

Other styles