How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schmitz OJ. Effects of predator hunting mode on grassland ecosystem function. Science. 2008;319:952–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kaufman AJ, Xiao S. High CO2 levels in the Proterozoic atmosphere estimated from analyses of individual microfossils. Nature. 2003;425:279–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rust MJ, Golden SS, O’Shea EK. Light-driven changes in energy metabolism directly entrain the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator. Science. 2011;331:220–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lin J, Heo Y-U, Nattestad A, Sun Z, Wang L, Kim JH, et al. 3D hierarchical rutile TiO2 and metal-free organic sensitizer producing dye-sensitized solar cells 8.6% conversion efficiency. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5769.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sundar V. Ocean Wave Mechanics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Yu PS, Han J, Faloutsos C, editors. Link Mining: Models, Algorithms, and Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Segal-Klein H. “Rendillelane”: Spatial Views from the Periphery of Kenya. In: Kithinji MM, Koster MM, Rotich JP, editors. Kenya After 50: Reconfiguring Historical, Political, and Policy Milestones. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016. p. 83–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Global Report Shows How To Beat The World’s Biggest Killers. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Education and Employment Issue Area Plan--Fiscal Years 1996-98. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Amanoua KP. Langue et identité dans les milieux populaires québécois et antillais. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Pettitte’s Words And Character Carry Weight. New York Times. 2010;:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Bioinformatics
ISSN (print)2043-9113

Other styles