How to format your references using the Journal of Circadian Rhythms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Circadian Rhythms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kono M. Geophysics. Ships’ logs and archeomagnetism. Science. 2006;312:865–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sime LC, Wolff EW. Antarctic accumulation seasonality. Nature. 2011;479:E1-2; author reply E2-4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hudson JJ, Taylor WD, Schindler DW. Phosphate concentrations in lakes. Nature. 2000;406:54–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Irvine DJ, Purbhoo MA, Krogsgaard M, Davis MM. Direct observation of ligand recognition by T cells. Nature. 2002;419:845–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hines M. Marketing implant dentistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Paksoy HÖ, editor. Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption: Fundamentals, Case Studies and Design. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bosco G, Matera F, Ennser K, Ibsen M, Marazzi L, Parmigiani F, et al. Experiments on Long-Haul High-Capacity Transmission Systems. In: Teixeira A, Tosi Beleffi GM, editors. Optical Transmission: The FP7 BONE Project Experience. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 185–234.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Circadian Rhythms.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Men’s Magazine Prints Editions Using HIV-Infected Blood To Tackle Stigma. IFLScience. 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Further Steps Needed to Strengthen the Security of Commercial Airport Perimeters and Access Controls. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Arzaga CB. Homeless shelter program for the elderly in Los Angeles, California: A grant writing project. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Reinhart MK. Kathy Mabry and Tom Prost. New York Times. 2011;:ST18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Circadian Rhythms
ISSN (print)1740-3391

Other styles