How to format your references using the Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Baker M. RNA interference: Homing in on delivery. Nature. 2010;464:1225–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Falk A, Szech N. Morals and markets. Science. 2013;340:707–11.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Victor DG, Gerlagh R, Baiocchi G. Climate policy. Getting serious about categorizing countries. Science. 2014;345:34–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Seo J-K, Kwon S-J, Cho WK, Choi H-S, Kim K-H. Type 2C protein phosphatase is a key regulator of antiviral extreme resistance limiting virus spread. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5905.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Porter AL, Cunningham SW. Tech Mining. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Kelly JD IV, editor. Elite Techniques in Shoulder Arthroscopy: New Frontiers in Shoulder Preservation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Raghavan P, Munaga S, Ramos ER, Lambrechts A, Jayapala M, Catthoor F, et al. A Customized Cross-Bar for Data-Shuffling in Domain-Specific SIMD Processors. In: Lukowicz P, Thiele L, Tröster G, editors. Architecture of Computing Systems - ARCS 2007: 20th International Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, March 12-15, 2007 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 57–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

Blog post
1. Fang J. NASA’s Messenger Will Crash Into Mercury This Month. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Success of the Programed School Input Program Justifies Expansion. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Sep. Report No.: FPCD-82-53.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Johnson L. A cross-cultural examination of the needs and behaviors of female caregivers of cancer patients at the end of life: A theoretical elaboration [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. A Holiday Gift Guide To a Library of Books With Local Connections. New York Times. 2013 Dec 8;A33B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
AbbreviationJ. Cardiovasc. Magn. Reson.
ISSN (online)1532-429X
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Family Practice
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles