How to format your references using the Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Chang FR. Computer science. Is your computer secure? Science. 2009;325:550–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wallenfang MR, Matunis E. Developmental biology. Orienting stem cells. Science. 2003;301:1490–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Allard P, Burton M, Muré F. Spectroscopic evidence for a lava fountain driven by previously accumulated magmatic gas. Nature. 2005;433:407–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chan HB, Aksyuk VA, Kleiman RN, Bishop DJ, Capasso F. Quantum mechanical actuation of microelectromechanical systems by the Casimir force. Science. 2001;291:1941–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Li Y. Computer Principles and Design in Verilog HDL. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Derevensky JL, Gupta R, editors. Gambling Problems in Youth: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Čomić L, De Floriani L, Magillo P, Iuricich F. A Combinatorial Approach Based on Forman Theory. In: De Floriani L, Magillo P, Iuricich F, editors. Morphological Modeling of Terrains and Volume Data. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Rosetta Spacecraft Snaps New Horizons At Pluto From Five Billion Kilometers Away [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Aviation Administration: Reauthorization Provides Opportunities to Address Key Agency Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Apr. Report No.: GAO-03-653T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Barrie DB. On the interaction of wind energy with climate and weather [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. McKINLEY JC Jr. Man Convicted of Murder in Patz Case Is Sentenced to 25 Years to Life. New York Times. 2017 Apr 18;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Cardiothorac. Surg.
ISSN (online)1749-8090
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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