How to format your references using the Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Knowles MT. How metrics could have saved UK car industry. Nature. 2000;405:13–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Catlos EJ, Sorensen SS. Phengite-based chronology of K- and Ba-rich fluid flow in two paleosubduction zones. Science. 2003;299:92–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Diddams SA, Hollberg L, Mbele V. Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb. Nature. 2007;445:627–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Pedersen TH, Nielsen OB, Lamb GD, Stephenson DG. Intracellular acidosis enhances the excitability of working muscle. Science. 2004;305:1144–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. S. Bagotsky V, M. Skundin A, M. Volfkovich Y. Electrochemical Power Sources. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Münz C, editor. Epstein Barr Virus Volume 1: One Herpes Virus: Many Diseases. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ayguadé E, Beyer J, Duran A, Ferrer R, Haab G, Li K, et al. An Extension to Improve OpenMP Tasking Control. In: Sato M, Hanawa T, Müller MS, Chapman BM, Supinski BR de, editors. Beyond Loop Level Parallelism in OpenMP: Accelerators, Tasking and More: 6th Internationan Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2010, Tsukuba, Japan, June 14-16, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 56–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. NASA Seeks Images & Messages For Asteroid Time Capsule [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Summary of United States Assistance to Jordan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Aug. Report No.: B-179001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Belletti A. Trumpet Practice: Habits and Goals [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. Clinton Campaign Avoided Workers’ Taxes. New York Times. 1993 Apr 18;127.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Cardiothorac. Surg.
ISSN (online)1749-8090
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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