How to format your references using the Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Harden N. Cell biology. Of grainy heads and broken skins. Science. 2005;308:364–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shine KP, Sturges WT. Atmospheric science. CO2 is not the only gas. Science. 2007;315:1804–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Debs JE, Robins NP, Close JD. Physics. Measuring mass in seconds. Science. 2013;339:532–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hedges LO, Jack RL, Garrahan JP, Chandler D. Dynamic order-disorder in atomistic models of structural glass formers. Science. 2009;323:1309–13.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sanchez A, Carro B. Digital Services in the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Fang Y. Fuzzy Portfolio Optimization: Theory and Methods. Lai KK, Wang S, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Trezzi J-P, Vlassis N, Hiller K. The Role of Metabolomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools. In: Scatena R, editor. Advances in Cancer Biomarkers: From biochemistry to clinic for a critical revision. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 41–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Did Fearlessness Lead To Chicken Domestication? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Public Works Consolidation: Jacksonville Naval Public Works Consolidation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Dec. Report No.: NSIAD-93-76FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ramotar-John BP. Supplementing soybean meal with Camelina (Camelina sativa) in tilapia diets and optimizing commercial tilapia diets for use in intensive systems in the Western region of the United States [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. Poised and Graceful Performers, but a Step Behind the Spotlight. New York Times. 2012 Feb 15;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
AbbreviationJ. Cardiothorac. Surg.
ISSN (online)1749-8090
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Surgery

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