How to format your references using the Journal of Business Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Business Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alerstam, T. (2006). Conflicting evidence about long-distance animal navigation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5788), 791–794.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bruick, R. K., & McKnight, S. L. (2001). A conserved family of prolyl-4-hydroxylases that modify HIF. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5545), 1337–1340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Al-Zaid, F. S., Alhader, A. A., & Al-Ayadhi, L. Y. (2014). Altered ghrelin levels in boys with autism: a novel finding associated with hormonal dysregulation. Scientific Reports, 4, 6478.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fukuda, K., Takeda, Y., Mizukami, M., Kumaki, D., & Tokito, S. (2014). Fully solution-processed flexible organic thin film transistor arrays with high mobility and exceptional uniformity. Scientific Reports, 4, 3947.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, P. I. (2006). A Manager’s Guide to the Design and Conduct of Clinical Trials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Verl, A., Albu-Schäffer, A., Brock, O., & Raatz, A. (Eds.). (2015). Soft Robotics: Transferring Theory to Application. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Giraud, C. (2012). Differential Fault Analysis of the Advanced Encryption Standard. In M. Joye & M. Tunstall (Eds.), Fault Analysis in Cryptography (pp. 55–72). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Business Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, September 27). Strange Cloud Turns Out to Be Butterflies Migrating. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Information Technology: Architecture Needed to Guide NASA’s Financial Management Modernization (GAO-04-43). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jorge, M. H. (2004). Relationships Among Poverty, Financial Services, Human Capital, Risk Coping, and Natural Resources: Evidence from El Salvador and Bolivia [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, June 23). U.S. and Algeria: Two Outsiders, but No Room for Both. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alerstam, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Alerstam, 2006; Bruick & McKnight, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bruick & McKnight, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Al-Zaid et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fukuda et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Business Research
AbbreviationJ. Bus. Res.
ISSN (print)0148-2963

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