How to format your references using the Journal of Bridge Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Bridge Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duncan, M. K. (2011). “Development. A new focus on RNA in the lens.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6024), 1523–1524.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kampmann, M., and Blobel, G. (2009). “Biochemistry. Nascent proteins caught in the act.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5958), 1352–1353.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yonezawa, H., Aoki, T., and Furusawa, A. (2004). “Demonstration of a quantum teleportation network for continuous variables.” Nature, 431(7007), 430–433.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Albrecht, C., Blank, K., Lalic-Mülthaler, M., Hirler, S., Mai, T., Gilbert, I., Schiffmann, S., Bayer, T., Clausen-Schaumann, H., and Gaub, H. E. (2003). “DNA: a programmable force sensor.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5631), 367–370.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mainardi, R. L. (2011). Harnessing the Power of Continuous Auditing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Lin, Y. (2015). Audio Watermark: A Comprehensive Foundation Using MATLAB. (W. H. Abdulla, ed.), Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Moser, M. L., Almeida, P. R., Kemp, P. S., and Sorensen, P. W. (2015). “Lamprey Spawning Migration.” Lampreys: Biology, Conservation and Control: Volume 1, M. F. Docker, ed., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 215–263.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Bridge Engineering.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015). “Black-Hole-Scope Could Reveal the Mystery of how Cosmic Jets Form.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Trends in Evaluation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gossett, J. M. (2009). “Autobiographical insights into the spiritual psychologies of Jung and Bion.” Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, L. (2007). “A Canadian Condo Boom.” New York Times, 1111.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Duncan 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Duncan 2011; Kampmann and Blobel 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kampmann and Blobel 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Albrecht et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Bridge Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Bridge Eng.
ISSN (print)1084-0702
ISSN (online)1943-5592
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Building and Construction

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