How to format your references using the Journal of Bridge Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Bridge Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown, K. R. (2014). “Physics Probing the electron.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6168), 255–256.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson, S. H., and Shirey, S. B. (2008). “Continental mantle signature of Bushveld magmas and coeval diamonds.” Nature, 453(7197), 910–913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sturm, M., Racine, C., and Tape, K. (2001). “Climate change. Increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic.” Nature, 411(6837), 546–547.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gopalakrishnan, A. M., Kundu, A. K., Mandal, T. K., and Kumar, N. (2013). “Novel nanosomes for gene delivery to Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.” Scientific reports, 3, 1534.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
West, B. J., and Griffin, L. A. (2005). Biodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fahy, G. M., West, M. D., Coles, L. S., and Harris, S. B. (Eds.). (2010). The Future of Aging: Pathways to Human Life Extension. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Heiberger, R. M., and Neuwirth, E. (2009). “Normal and t Distributions.” R Through Excel: A Spreadsheet Interface for Statistics, Data Analysis, and Graphics, E. Neuwirth, ed., Springer, New York, NY, 61–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Bridge Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). “New Genetic Reprogramming Tool Edits Two Genes At Once.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges Facing the Agency in Fiscal Year 2009 and Beyond. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krepstekies, C. (2010). “News Media Representations of Women in the U.S. Military Post September 11, 2001.” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017). “Wheeler and Gsellman Join the Mets’ Rotation.” New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brown 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Brown 2014; Richardson and Shirey 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richardson and Shirey 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Gopalakrishnan et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Bridge Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Bridge Eng.
ISSN (print)1084-0702
ISSN (online)1943-5592
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Building and Construction

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