How to format your references using the Journal of Bridge Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Bridge Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lee, R. (2011). “The outlook for population growth.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6042), 569–573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sachs, J., and Malaney, P. (2002). “The economic and social burden of malaria.” Nature, 415(6872), 680–685.
A journal article with 3 authors
Young, B. A., Gruber, T. M., and Gross, C. A. (2004). “Minimal machinery of RNA polymerase holoenzyme sufficient for promoter melting.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5662), 1382–1384.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yu, W.-K., Liu, X.-F., Yao, X.-R., Wang, C., Zhai, Y., and Zhai, G.-J. (2014). “Complementary compressive imaging for the telescopic system.” Scientific reports, 4, 5834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, W., Shmulevich, I., and Astola, J. (2005). Microarray Quality Control. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Moritz, K. M. (2008). Factors Influencing Mammalian Kidney Development: Implications for Health in Adult Life. Advances in Anatomy Embryology and Cell Biology, (M. Wintour-Coghlan, M. J. Black, J. F. Bertram, and G. Caruana, eds.), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Dooling, R. J., Dent, M. L., Lauer, A. M., and Ryals, B. M. (2008). “Functional Recovery After Hair Cell Regeneration in Birds.” Hair Cell Regeneration, Repair, and Protection, Springer Handbook of Auditory Research, R. J. Salvi, A. N. Popper, and R. R. Fay, eds., Springer, New York, NY, 117–140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Bridge Engineering.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015). “Video Shows An Orca Throwing A Seal 80 Feet Into The Air.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Relocation of Space Shuttle Major Modification Work. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garapati, S. H. (2013). “Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Assembly Procedures of Steel Fulcra of Bascule Bridges.” Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2011). “Austin Filmmaker Scores Sight Unseen at Sundance.” New York Times, A27B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lee 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Lee 2011; Sachs and Malaney 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sachs and Malaney 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Yu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Bridge Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Bridge Eng.
ISSN (print)1084-0702
ISSN (online)1943-5592
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Building and Construction

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