How to format your references using the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watson, Robert T. 2003. Climate change: the political situation. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302: 1925–1926.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yoshida, Naohiro, and Jota Kanda. 2012. Geochemistry. Tracking the Fukushima radionuclides. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336: 1115–1116.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lapointe, Clayton P., Thomas G. Mason, and Ivan I. Smalyukh. 2009. Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326: 1083–1086.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bird, Alexander W., David Y. Yu, Marilyn G. Pray-Grant, Qifeng Qiu, Kirsty E. Harmon, Paul C. Megee, Patrick A. Grant, M. Mitchell Smith, and Michael F. Christman. 2002. Acetylation of histone H4 by Esa1 is required for DNA double-strand break repair. Nature 419: 411–415.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lam, James. 2014. Enterprise Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sencha, Alexander N. 2013. Breast Ultrasound. Edited by Elena V. Evseeva, Mikhail S. Mogutov, and Yury N. Patrunov. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Groeninckx, G., C. Harrats, M. Vanneste, and V. Everaert. 2014. Crystallization, Micro- and Nano-structure, and Melting Behavior of Polymer Blends. In Polymer Blends Handbook, ed. Leszek A. Utracki and Charles A. Wilkie, 291–446. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. There Was A Decline Of Male Diversity When Humans Took To Agriculture. IFLScience. IFLScience. April 21.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. Increasing Use of Data Telecommunications Calls for Stronger Protection and Improved Economies. LCD-81-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wurster, Karl W. 2010. Management matter? Effects of charcoal production management on woodland regeneration in Senegal. Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, John. 2016. Penn Station Inhabitant Gets a Home of Her Own. New York Times, December 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watson 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Watson 2003; Yoshida and Kanda 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yoshida and Kanda 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Bird et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Bioethical Inquiry
ISSN (print)1176-7529
ISSN (online)1872-4353

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