How to format your references using the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tegmark, M. 2000. Cosmology. The dark side of distortion. Nature 405: 133–134.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, Paul, and Susan M. Parkhurst. 2003. Development. May the force be with you. Science (New York, N.Y.) 300: 63–65.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vaccari, N. E., G. D. Edgecombe, and C. Escudero. 2004. Cambrian origins and affinities of an enigmatic fossil group of arthropods. Nature 430: 554–557.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Birnbaum, K. M., A. Boca, R. Miller, A. D. Boozer, T. E. Northup, and H. J. Kimble. 2005. Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom. Nature 436: 87–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ho, Rodney J. Y., and Milo Gibaldi. 2003. Biotechnology and Biopharmaceuticals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Furse, Mike T., Daniel Hering, Karel Brabec, Andrea Buffagni, Leonard Sandin, and Piet F. M. Verdonschot, ed. 2006. The Ecological Status of European Rivers: Evaluation and Intercalibration of Assessment Methods. Vol. 188. Developments in Hydrobiology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Bittermann, Dietmar, and Manfred Fischer. 2011. Development and Design of the EPRTM Core Catcher. In Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies, ed. Takehiko Saito, Junichi Yamashita, Yoshiaki Oka, and Yuki Ishiwatari, 119–142. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.

Blog post
Taub, Ben. 2016. “Lost Mayan City” Discovered By Teenager May Not Be A City After All. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 12.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. National Laboratories: Better Performance Reporting Could Aid Oversight of Laboratory-Directed R&D Program. GAO-01-927. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cao, Qing. 2013. East Asian backpacker tourists’ motivations for participating in backpacking. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2017. Hello, P.L.O.? This Is Israel, via Oslo. New York Times, April 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tegmark 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Tegmark 2000; Martin and Parkhurst 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Parkhurst 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Birnbaum et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Bioethical Inquiry
ISSN (print)1176-7529
ISSN (online)1872-4353

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