How to format your references using the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaston, Kevin J. 2013. Sustainability: A green light for efficiency. Nature 497: 560–561.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kramer, Elena M., and Kathleen Donohue. 2006. Evolution. Traversing the adaptive landscape in snapdragons. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313: 924–925.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, Lei, Katharina L. Dürr, and Eric Gouaux. 2014. X-ray structures of AMPA receptor-cone snail toxin complexes illuminate activation mechanism. Science (New York, N.Y.) 345: 1021–1026.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Arcizet, O., P-F Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann. 2006. Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror. Nature 444: 71–74.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lewis, Richard J., Sr. 2008. Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference, Sixth Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chatterjee, Shouri. 2007. Analog Circuit Design Techniques at 0.5 V. Edited by Kong Pang Pun, Nebojša Stanić, Yannis Tsividis, and Peter Kinget. 1st ed. Analog Circuits and Signal Processing Series. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Bachwerk, Martin, and Carl Vogel. 2011. Establishing Linguistic Conventions in Task-Oriented Primeval Dialogue. In Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and Enactment. The Processing Issues: COST 2102 International Conference, Budapest, Hungary, September 7-10, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, ed. Anna Esposito, Alessandro Vinciarelli, Klára Vicsi, Catherine Pelachaud, and Anton Nijholt, 48–55. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. Hidden “Mantle Scars” Can Come To Life And Cause Earthquakes. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 13.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Residential Treatment Programs: Concerns Regarding Abuse and Death in Certain Programs for Troubled Youth. GAO-08-146T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sun, Zaodi. 2013. A qualitative study of Chinese parents’ beliefs, involvement and challenges in support of their children’s English language development in China. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2016. In Rejection of Steinbrenner, the Hall Adopts His Brashness. New York Times, December 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gaston 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kramer and Donohue 2006; Gaston 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kramer and Donohue 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Arcizet et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Bioethical Inquiry
ISSN (print)1176-7529
ISSN (online)1872-4353

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