How to format your references using the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bell, John I. 2003. The double helix in clinical practice. Nature 421: 414–416.
A journal article with 2 authors
Janssen, C., and R. A. Marcus. 2001. Does symmetry drive isotopic anomalies in ozone isotopomer formation? Science (New York, N.Y.) 294: 951.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, S. J., T. M. Wigley, and J. Edmonds. 2000. CLIMATE: A New Route Toward Limiting Climate Change? Science (New York, N.Y.) 290: 1109–1110.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zuev, Peter S., Robert S. Sheridan, Titus V. Albu, Donald G. Truhlar, David A. Hrovat, and Weston Thatcher Borden. 2003. Carbon tunneling from a single quantum state. Science (New York, N.Y.) 299: 867–870.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Donham, Kelley J., and Anders Thelin. 2016. Agricultural Medicine. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Abdulwahed, Mahmoud, Mazen O. Hasna, and Jeffrey E. Froyd, ed. 2016. Advances in Engineering Education in the Middle East and North Africa: Current Status, and Future Insights. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Propp, Stefan, and Peter Forbrig. 2010. ViSE – A Virtual Smart Environment for Usability Evaluation. In Human-Centred Software Engineering: Third International Conference, HCSE 2010, Reykjavik, Iceland, October 14-15, 2010. Proceedings, ed. Regina Bernhaupt, Peter Forbrig, Jan Gulliksen, and Marta Lárusdóttir, 38–45. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. World’s Largest Solar Farm Goes Online In California. IFLScience. IFLScience. December 1.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Biotechnology Regulation. RCED-92-217R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown, Odell. 2008. Business and IT leaders’ behavioral affects on alignment and project outcome: A comparative leadership study. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben. 2017. ‘Fifty Shades’ Album Soars to No. 1. New York Times, February 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bell 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Janssen and Marcus 2001; Bell 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Janssen and Marcus 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Zuev et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Bioethical Inquiry
ISSN (print)1176-7529
ISSN (online)1872-4353

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