How to format your references using the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Connor, Sarah E. 2015. PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY. Fighting cancer while saving the mayapple. Science (New York, N.Y.) 349: 1167–1168.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gribble, Paul L., and Stephen H. Scott. 2002. Overlap of internal models in motor cortex for mechanical loads during reaching. Nature 417: 938–941.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Yongping, Gang Chen, and Chuanwei Zhang. 2013. Tunable spin-orbit coupling and quantum phase transition in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Scientific reports 3: 1937.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Huang, Zi-Gang, Jia-Qi Dong, Liang Huang, and Ying-Cheng Lai. 2014. Universal flux-fluctuation law in small systems. Scientific reports 4: 6787.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smeets, René, Lou van der Sluis, Mirsad Kapetanović, David F. Peelo, and Anton Janssen. 2014. Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bussler, Christoph, and Ming-Chien Shan, ed. 2006. Technologies for E-Services: 6th International Workshop, TES 2005, Trondheim, Norway, September 2-3, 2005, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 3811. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cory, Clark A. 2015. New Visualization Techniques in AEC-BIM More than Modeling. In The Visual Language of Technique: Volume 2 - Heritage and Expectations in Research, ed. Luigi Cocchiarella, 49–64. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Spectacular Photograph Shows Earliest Stars That Formed In Our Universe. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Rail Transit: Observations on FTA’s State Safety Oversight Program and Potential Change in Oversight Role. GAO-10-293T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dixon, Laura Kellie. 2009. Tracing anthropogenic wastes: Detection of fluorescent optical brighteners in a gradient of natural organic matter fluorescence. Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, Susan. 2017. From Raising Consciousness to Raising Hell. New York Times, March 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Connor 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gribble and Scott 2002; O’Connor 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gribble and Scott 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Bioethical Inquiry
ISSN (print)1176-7529
ISSN (online)1872-4353

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