How to format your references using the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mattson, Mark P. 2004. Pathways towards and away from Alzheimer’s disease. Nature 430: 631–639.
A journal article with 2 authors
Addiscott, Tom, and Phil Brookes. 2002. Nitrogen cycle: what governs nitrogen loss from forest soils? Nature 418: 604; discussion 604.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deana, Atilio, Helena Celesnik, and Joel G. Belasco. 2008. The bacterial enzyme RppH triggers messenger RNA degradation by 5’ pyrophosphate removal. Nature 451: 355–358.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kastner, J. H., M. Richmond, N. Grosso, D. A. Weintraub, T. Simon, A. Frank, K. Hamaguchi, H. Ozawa, and A. Henden. 2004. An X-ray outburst from the rapidly accreting young star that illuminates McNeil’s nebula. Nature 430: 429–431.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silvia, Tony, and Terry Anzur. 2011. Power Performance. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe, Ingolf A. Türk, and Evangelos N. Liatsikos, ed. 2011. Laparoscopic and Robot-Assisted Surgery in Urology: Atlas of Standard Procedures. 1st ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Xiang, Li. 2012. Simulation System of Examination Score Analysis Based on an Improved Apriori Algorithm. In Advances in Computer Science and Engineering, ed. Dehuai Zeng, 19–25. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Skin Patch Powers Electronics Using Muscle Movements. IFLScience. IFLScience. February 3.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Maritime Administration’s Federal Ship Financing Program. T-RCED-88-1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Escobedo, Karina. 2017. Sana Mente Center. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, Susan. 2014. Comic Relief. New York Times, October 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mattson 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Addiscott and Brookes 2002; Mattson 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Addiscott and Brookes 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kastner et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Bioethical Inquiry
ISSN (print)1176-7529
ISSN (online)1872-4353

Other styles