How to format your references using the Energy Conversion and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Conversion and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rotblat J. ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Taking Responsibility. Science 2000;289:729.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sprangers R, Kay LE. Quantitative dynamics and binding studies of the 20S proteasome by NMR. Nature 2007;445:618–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wisniewski W, Patschger M, Rüssel C. Viscous fingering and dendritic growth of surface crystallized Sr2TiSi2O8 fresnoite. Sci Rep 2013;3:3558.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Campillos M, Kuhn M, Gavin A-C, Jensen LJ, Bork P. Drug target identification using side-effect similarity. Science 2008;321:263–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Exposito E. Advanced Transport Protocols. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Lieb EH. The Mathematics of the Bose Gas and its Condensation. vol. 34. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Bacon S. The Expectational Body: The Becoming of the Tortured Vampire Horde in Daybreakers. In: de Valk M, editor. Screening the Tortured Body: The Cinema as Scaffold, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 71–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Conversion and Management.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. What The Hell Is This Bizarre Looking “Alien” Creature? IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Input Processing Strategy is Risky and Lacks a Sound Analytical Basis. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salamah H. Potential barriers to seeking medical care: Does obesity and/or self-esteem result in decreased frequency of necessary medical office visits? Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kalogerakis G. A Life in Pictures. New York Times 2012:MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Conversion and Management
AbbreviationEnergy Convers. Manag.
ISSN (print)0196-8904
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology
Nuclear Energy and Engineering
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Other styles