How to format your references using the Energy Conversion and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Conversion and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
White TD. Obituary: F. Clark Howell (1925-2007). Nature 2007;447:52.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Pomerantz RT, O’Donnell M. The replisome uses mRNA as a primer after colliding with RNA polymerase. Nature 2008;456:762–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Rajagopalan J, Han JH, Saif MTA. Plastic deformation recovery in freestanding nanocrystalline aluminum and gold thin films. Science 2007;315:1831–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Chen CK, Burns ME, He W, Wensel TG, Baylor DA, Simon MI. Slowed recovery of rod photoresponse in mice lacking the GTPase accelerating protein RGS9-1. Nature 2000;403:557–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Plantin J-C. Participatory Mapping. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Bonnick SL. Bone Densitometry for Technologists. 3rd ed. 2013. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Jessell MW, Koehn D, Bons PD, Jessell MW, Urai JL, Schenk O, et al. Case studies and coupling of processes. In: Bons PDD, Koehn D, Jessell MW, editors. Microdynamics Simulation, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008, p. 207–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Conversion and Management.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. There Is Water On Mars, But What Does This Mean For Life? IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/space/there-water-mars-what-does-mean-life/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Software Tools and Techniques. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Leal LS. Pair correlations in clean magnetic Josephson junctions. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Walsh MW. Contractor’s Work Faulted At U.S. Pension Guarantor. New York Times 2011:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Conversion and Management
AbbreviationEnergy Convers. Manag.
ISSN (print)0196-8904
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology
Nuclear Energy and Engineering
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Other styles