How to format your references using the Energy Conversion and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Conversion and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Canup RM. Forming a Moon with an Earth-like composition via a giant impact. Science 2012;338:1052–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoffmann AA, Sgrò CM. Climate change and evolutionary adaptation. Nature 2011;470:479–85.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lanzillo NA, Kharche N, Nayak SK. Substrate-induced band gap renormalization in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Sci Rep 2014;4:3609.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jang J-H, Lee E, Park J, Kim G, Hong S, Kwon Y-U. Rational syntheses of core-shell Fex@Pt nanoparticles for the study of electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction. Sci Rep 2013;3:2872.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sigee DC. Freshwater Microbiology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Nash JF Jr, Rassias MT, editors. Open Problems in Mathematics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Acs ZJ. New Firm Formation and the Region: Empirical Results from the United States. In: Santarelli E, editor. Entrepreneurship, Growth, and Innovation: The Dynamics of Firms and Industries, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006, p. 105–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Conversion and Management.

Blog post
Andrew E. Move Over Milky Way, Elliptical Galaxies Are The Most Habitable In The Cosmos. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Justice ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ma Y. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Vector to Deliver Virus-Like Particles of Human Norovirus: A New Live Vectored Vaccine for Human Norovirus. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Three Goals Early in Third Period Help Penguins Tighten Their Grip. New York Times 2017:B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Conversion and Management
AbbreviationEnergy Convers. Manag.
ISSN (print)0196-8904
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology
Nuclear Energy and Engineering
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Other styles