How to format your references using the Journal of Asian Earth Sciences: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Asian Earth Sciences: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Omichinski, J.G., 2007. Biochemistry. Toward methylmercury bioremediation. Science 317, 205–206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Watson, A.J.A., Williams, J.M.J., 2010. Chemistry. The give and take of alcohol activation. Science 329, 635–636.
A journal article with 3 authors
Petersen-Mahrt, S.K., Harris, R.S., Neuberger, M.S., 2002. AID mutates E. coli suggesting a DNA deamination mechanism for antibody diversification. Nature 418, 99–103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krot, A.N., Yurimoto, H., Hutcheon, I.D., MacPherson, G.J., 2005. Chronology of the early Solar System from chondrule-bearing calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions. Nature 434, 998–1001.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sapienza, A.M., 2004. Managing Scientists. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nam, K.-H., Rhee, G. (Eds.), 2007. Information Security and Cryptology - ICISC 2007: 10th International Conference, Seoul, Korea, November 29-30, 2007. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Rodrigues, F., Coles, M., Dye, D., 2012. Connection Managers, in: Coles, M., Dye, D. (Eds.), Pro SQL Server 2012 Integration Services. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp. 83–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Asian Earth Sciences: X.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. How To Save Inbred, Short-Faced Dogs Such As Pugs And Bulldogs From Poor Health [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Preliminary Analysis of Progress and Challenges Associated with the Transformation of the National Airspace System (No. GAO-06-915T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rogers, R., 2017. What Qualities Make an Effective Teacher Labor Union Leader? (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M., 2017. Trump Returns Home After 3 Months Away To Stay for 4 Hours. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Omichinski, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Omichinski, 2007; Watson and Williams, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Watson and Williams, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Krot et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Asian Earth Sciences: X
ISSN (print)2590-0560

Other styles