How to format your references using the Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramchandani P: A question of balance. Nature 2004;430:401–402.
A journal article with 2 authors
Supek F, Lehner B: Differential DNA mismatch repair underlies mutation rate variation across the human genome. Nature 2015;521:81–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen J, Rau A, Brüning K: Climate change. Bridging the Montreal-Kyoto gap. Science 2009;326:940–941.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ackert RP Jr, Becker RA, Singer BS, Kurz MD, Caffee MW, Mickelson DM: Patagonian glacier response during the late glacial-Holocene transition. Science 2008;321:392–395.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Potter L: The Life of William Shakespeare. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012.
An edited book
Nishikawa K, Maruani J, Brändas EJ, Delgado-Barrio G, Piecuch P (eds): Quantum Systems in Chemistry and Physics: Progress in Methods and Applications. Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Chiu C-C, Soo V-W: Subgoal Identification for Reinforcement Learning and Planning in Multiagent Problem Solving; in Petta P, Müller JP, Klusch M, Georgeff M (eds): Multiagent System Technologies: 5th German Conference, MATES 2007, Leipzig, Germany, September 24-26, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2007, pp 37–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders.

Blog post
Andrew E: Anthrax Toxin Could Be Used To Deliver Cancer Drugs. IFLScience 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Evaluating the Department of Education’s Field Readers: Were They Qualified? Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watkins D: The common factors between coaching cultures and transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and high-performance organizational cultures 2008;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW: A Chilly Reception. New York Times 2015;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
AbbreviationDement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord.
ISSN (print)1420-8008
ISSN (online)1421-9824
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Psychiatry and Mental health
Cognitive Neuroscience

Other styles