How to format your references using the Journal of Artificial Organs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Artificial Organs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. DiVincenzo DP. Physics. Toward control of large-scale quantum computing. Science. 2011;334:50–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Yosef I, Qimron U. Microbiology: How bacteria get spacers from invaders. Nature. 2015;519:166–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Serabyn E, Mawet D, Burruss R. An image of an exoplanet separated by two diffraction beamwidths from a star. Nature. 2010;464:1018–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gao Z, Liu H-L, Daxinger L, Pontes O, He X, Qian W, et al. An RNA polymerase II- and AGO4-associated protein acts in RNA-directed DNA methylation. Nature. 2010;465:106–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Richards A, Dafydd H. Key Notes on Plastic Surgery. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Carey E. Millimeter-Wave Integrated Circuits. Lidholm S, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Manhães M, Dávila GA. The Innovation Triple Challenge: A Creativity Check for SMES. In: North K, Varvakis G, editors. Competitive Strategies for Small and Medium Enterprises: Increasing Crisis Resilience, Agility and Innovation in Turbulent Times. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 77–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Artificial Organs.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Human Influence On Climate Dates Back 180 Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Student Discipline: Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Jan. Report No.: GAO-01-210.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Beal ME. Predictive qualities of social characteristics and social integration on altruistic outcomes [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Feeney K. A Slice of Virtue. New York Times. 2011 Jan 2;NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Artificial Organs
AbbreviationJ. Artif. Organs
ISSN (print)1434-7229
ISSN (online)1619-0904
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles