How to format your references using the Journal of Artificial Organs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Artificial Organs (J Artif Organs). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sarmiento EE. Comment on the paleobiology and classification of Ardipithecus ramidus. Science. 2010;328:1105; author reply 1105.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Niu F, Wen L. Hemispherical variations in seismic velocity at the top of the Earth’s inner core. Nature. 2001;410:1081–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Smith J, Theodoris C, Davidson EH. A gene regulatory network subcircuit drives a dynamic pattern of gene expression. Science. 2007;318:794–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sieh K, Natawidjaja DH, Meltzner AJ, Shen C-C, Cheng H, Li K-S, et al. Earthquake supercycles inferred from sea-level changes recorded in the corals of West Sumatra. Science. 2008;322:1674–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Jarry P, Beneat JN. Microwave Amplifier and Active Circuit Design Using the Real Frequency Technique. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
1. Verdin E, editor. Histone Deacetylases: Transcriptional Regulation and Other Cellular Functions. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Vidal-Romaní JR, Vaqueiro M, Sanjurjo J. Granite Landforms in Galicia. In: Gutiérrez F, Gutiérrez M, editors. Landscapes and Landforms of Spain. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 63–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Artificial Organs.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Humanity Is In The Existential Danger Zone, Study Confirms [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Station: NASA’s Search for Design, Cost, and Schedule Stability Continues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Mar. Report No.: NSIAD-91-125.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gates DA. Best Practices and Strategies for Financial Literacy in Faith-Based Organizations [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. Reading by Numbers. New York Times. 2017 Mar 9;BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Artificial Organs
AbbreviationJ. Artif. Organs
ISSN (print)1434-7229
ISSN (online)1619-0904
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles