How to format your references using the Journal of Artificial Organs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Artificial Organs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ashworth WJ. Metrology and the state: science, revenue, and commerce. Science. 2004;306:1314–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Thompson KH, Orvig C. Boon and bane of metal ions in medicine. Science. 2003;300:936–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zhang X, Zhu Y, Granick S. Hydrophobicity at a Janus interface. Science. 2002;295:663–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Liu D, Duan Y-Y, Yang Z, Yu H-T. A new route for unburned carbon concentration measurements eliminating mineral content and coal rank effects. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Krause TR. Leading with Safety. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Moroney L, MacDonald M, editors. Pro ASP.NET 2.0 in VB 2005. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Du W, Song Y, Li Y. Multiple Perspective of Public Administration Development Strategy of NGOs. In: Zhou Q, editor. Advances in Applied Economics, Business and Development: International Symposium, ISAEBD 2011, Dalian, China, August 6-7, 2011, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 33–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Artificial Organs.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Captive Chimpanzees To Be Classified As Endangered. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund: Financial Condition as of September 30, 1997. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Apr. Report No.: RCED-98-171R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kotamreddy A. Design and Simulation of 16 Psk Super Regenerative Receiver [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Southall A. Brownsville Residents Seek Answers After a Mentally Ill Ex-Convict Is Fatally Shot. New York Times. 2016 Jun 20;A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Artificial Organs
AbbreviationJ. Artif. Organs
ISSN (print)1434-7229
ISSN (online)1619-0904
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles