How to format your references using the Journal of Artificial Organs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Artificial Organs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Abdool Karim SS. Stigma impedes AIDS prevention. Nature. 2011;474:29–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Yang X, Lu X. Drastic change in China’s lakes and reservoirs over the past decades. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6041.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mosey NJ, Müser MH, Woo TK. Molecular mechanisms for the functionality of lubricant additives. Science. 2005;307:1612–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chen JG, Crooks RM, Seefeldt LC, Bren KL, Bullock RM, Darensbourg MY, et al. Beyond fossil fuel-driven nitrogen transformations. Science. 2018;360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Köhler M. Nanotechnologie. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1. Hart LC, Alston AS, Murata A, editors. Lesson Study Research and Practice in Mathematics Education: Learning Together. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mace RR. Intelligence, Dataveillance, and Information Privacy. In: Gal CS, Kantor PB, Lesk ME, editors. Protecting Persons While Protecting the People: Second Annual Workshop on Information Privacy and National Security, ISIPS 2008, New Brunswick, NJ, USA, May 12, 2008 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 34–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Artificial Organs.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Severe Weather Warning For Met Office As BBC Freezes It Out [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Student Loan Marketing Association’s Loan Consolidation Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 May. Report No.: 121459.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gokhin DS. Structural and functional roles of nebulin in skeletal muscle [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. Russian Priest Killed in Church. New York Times. 2009 Nov 20;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Artificial Organs
AbbreviationJ. Artif. Organs
ISSN (print)1434-7229
ISSN (online)1619-0904
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles