How to format your references using the Journal of Artificial Organs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Artificial Organs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. Cash incentives. Nature. 2004;427:567.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Watkins NW, Freeman MP. Geoscience. Natural complexity. Science. 2008;320:323–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bridgham JT, Carroll SM, Thornton JW. Evolution of hormone-receptor complexity by molecular exploitation. Science. 2006;312:97–101.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Klimanskaya I, Chung Y, Becker S, Lu S-J, Lanza R. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres. Nature. 2006;444:481–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gaffney S, Francis C. Honesty Sells. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Schmidt B. Ion Beams in Materials Processing and Analysis. Wetzig K, editor. Vienna: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cayuela A. Vulnerable: To Be Between Life and Death. In: Masferrer A, García-Sánchez E, editors. Human Dignity of the Vulnerable in the Age of Rights: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 63–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Artificial Organs.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Check Out This Stunning New View Of The Crab Nebula [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FCC: Redesignating and Reallocating Frequency Bands and Establishing Rules and Policies for Local Multipoint Distribution Service and Fixed Satellite Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Sep. Report No.: OGC-96-44.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bethany MP. Business continuity planning: Identifying gaps, patterns and justifications [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. Rostropovich Is Laid to Rest Near Another Russian Titan. New York Times. 2007 Apr 30;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Artificial Organs
AbbreviationJ. Artif. Organs
ISSN (print)1434-7229
ISSN (online)1619-0904
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles