How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laybourn-Parry J. 2009. Microbiology. No place too cold. Science. 324(5934):1521–1522.
A journal article with 2 authors
Domon B, Aebersold R. 2006. Mass spectrometry and protein analysis. Science. 312(5771):212–217.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beatty CD, Beirinckx K, Sherratt TN. 2004. The evolution of müllerian mimicry in multispecies communities. Nature. 431(7004):63–66.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Vigsnaes LK, van den Abbeele P, Sulek K, Frandsen HL, Steenholdt C, Brynskov J, Vermeiren J, van de Wiele T, Licht TR. 2013. Microbiotas from UC patients display altered metabolism and reduced ability of LAB to colonize mucus. Sci Rep. 3:1110.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dacey JS, Mack MD, Fiore LB. 2016. Your Anxious Child. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Carafoli E, Brini M, editors. 2007. Calcium Signalling and Disease: Molecular Pathology of Calcium. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Tamin MN, Shaffiar NM. 2014. Application I: Solder Joint Reflow Process. In: Shaffiar NM, editor. Solder Joint Reliability Assessment: Finite Element Simulation Methodology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; p. 75–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research.

Blog post
Davis J. 2016. July 2016 Was Officially The Hottest Month Ever On Record. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1974. The Process for Identifying Needs and Establishing Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhou Y. 2010. Resource Management in Wireless Networks: Queue Management and Scheduling in Mesh Networks and Multi-Access Control in Internetworking Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. 2012. Russia: Prosecutors Investigate After Exhibition Draws Complaints. New York Times.:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laybourn-Parry 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Domon & Aebersold 2006; Laybourn-Parry 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Domon & Aebersold 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Vigsnaes et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Water Engineering and Research
ISSN (online)2324-9676

Other styles