How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tyson JJ. 2007. Bringing cartoons to life. Nature. 445(7130):823.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spero HJ, Lea DW. 2002. The cause of carbon isotope minimum events on glacial terminations. Science. 296(5567):522–525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Birbeck GL, Meyer A-C, Ogunniyi A. 2015. Nervous system disorders across the life course in resource-limited settings. Nature. 527(7578):S167-71.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Freedman DJ, Riesenhuber M, Poggio T, Miller EK. 2001. Categorical representation of visual stimuli in the primate prefrontal cortex. Science. 291(5502):312–316.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith MB. 2014. Compendium of Organic Synthetic Methods: Smith/Compendium. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dimian M. 2014. Noise-Driven Phenomena in Hysteretic Systems. Andrei P, editor. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stankovic S, Stankovic AR. 2013. Bioindicators of Toxic Metals. In: Lichtfouse E, Schwarzbauer J, Robert D, editors. Green Materials for Energy, Products and Depollution. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; p. 151–228.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research.

Blog post
Taub B. 2016. Medical Examiner’s Report Shows Prince Died After Overdosing On Painkiller That’s 80 Times Stronger Than Morphine. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Financial Difficulties and Funding at D-Q University. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miramontes AJ. 2017. Examining eye fixation patterns during the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) under varying levels of workload [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wells L. 2005. My Life in Pictures. New York Times.:656.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tyson 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Spero and Lea 2002; Tyson 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Spero and Lea 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Freedman et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Water Engineering and Research
ISSN (online)2324-9676

Other styles