How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. 2000. ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: Lee Case Births a Reluctant Activist. Science. 290(5494):1073.
A journal article with 2 authors
Racki G, Koeberl C. 2004. Comment on “Impact ejecta layer from the mid-Devonian: possible connection to global mass extinctions.” Science. 303(5657):471; author reply 471.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hanotte O, Dessie T, Kemp S. 2010. Ecology. Time to tap Africa’s livestock genomes. Science. 328(5986):1640–1641.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Newton PK, Mason J, Hurt B, Bethel K, Bazhenova L, Nieva J, Kuhn P. 2014. Entropy, complexity, and Markov diagrams for random walk cancer models. Sci Rep. 4:7558.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perera AH, Buse LJ. 2014. Ecology of Wildfire Residuals in Boreal Forests. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rapozzi V, Jori G, editors. 2015. Resistance to Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gheriani R, Mechiakh R. 2014. Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis of Titanium Coatings on Steel Substrates. In: Polychroniadis EK, Oral AY, Ozer M, editors. International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress: Proceedings of InterM, Antalya, Turkey, October 10–13, 2013. Cham: Springer International Publishing; p. 33–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2015. GIF Shows Just How Fast New Horizons Is Travelling. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Computer Systems: Overview of Federal Systems for Processing Aliens Seeking U.S. Entry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Proser M. 2015. Ingredients for Optimal Care: Exploring Factors Associated with Patient Quality Outcomes among Federally-Qualified Health Centers [Doctoral dissertation]. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic B, Chapman MM. 2015. Smaller Pay Gap in New Contract at Fiat Chrysler. New York Times.:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler 2000; Racki and Koeberl 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Racki and Koeberl 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Newton et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Water Engineering and Research
ISSN (online)2324-9676

Other styles