How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Volcanology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Volcanology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schaffer S. The laird of physics. Nature. 2011 Mar 17;471(7338):289–91.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wan YY, Flavell RA. Regulatory T-cell functions are subverted and converted owing to attenuated Foxp3 expression. Nature. 2007 Feb 15;445(7129):766–70.
A journal article with 3 authors
King N, Hittinger CT, Carroll SB. Evolution of key cell signaling and adhesion protein families predates animal origins. Science. 2003 Jul 18;301(5631):361–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Moskun AC, Jailaubekov AE, Bradforth SE, Tao G, Stratt RM. Rotational coherence and a sudden breakdown in linear response seen in room-temperature liquids. Science. 2006 Mar 31;311(5769):1907–11.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Segal HP. Utopias. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Hersh RG. Fundamentals of Transference-Focused Psychotherapy: Applications in Psychiatric and Medical Settings. Caligor E, Yeomans FE, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Chambrone L, de la Rosa-Garza M, Ramos UD, Reino DM, Rossy LAB. Complications, Adverse Effects, and Patient-Centered Outcomes of Soft Tissue Augmentation Procedures and the Use of Gingival Soft Tissue Substitutes. In: Chambrone L, editor. Evidence-Based Periodontal and Peri-Implant Plastic Surgery: A Clinical Roadmap from Function to Aesthetics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 147–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Volcanology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Why Do Spiders Curl Up When They Die? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellites: Status, Plans, and Future Data Management Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Jul. Report No.: GAO-02-684T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jorge MH. Relationships Among Poverty, Financial Services, Human Capital, Risk Coping, and Natural Resources: Evidence from El Salvador and Bolivia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2004.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Reporter’s Notebook; Clinton’s 4-Day Holiday: Exhaustive Relaxation. New York Times. 1992 Dec 1;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schaffer 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Schaffer 2011; Wan and Flavell 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wan and Flavell 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Moskun et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Volcanology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Volcanol.
ISSN (online)2191-5040

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