How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Volcanology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Volcanology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor WR. A “periodic table” for protein structures. Nature. 2002 Apr 11;416(6881):657–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gelb MH, Hol WGJ. Parasitology. Drugs to combat tropical protozoan parasites. Science. 2002 Jul 19;297(5580):343–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roscioli JR, McCunn LR, Johnson MA. Quantum structure of the intermolecular proton bond. Science. 2007 Apr 13;316(5822):249–54.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Honkala K, Hellman A, Remediakis IN, Logadottir A, Carlsson A, Dahl S, et al. Ammonia synthesis from first-principles calculations. Science. 2005 Jan 28;307(5709):555–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lipiansky E. Electrical, Electronics, and Digital Hardware Essentials for Scientists and Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Stober I. Geothermal Energy: From Theoretical Models to Exploration and Development. Bucher K, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang W, Ho ATS, Treharne H. A Novel Least Distortion Linear Gain Model for Halftone Image Watermarking Incorporating Perceptual Quality Metrics. In: Shi YQ, editor. Transactions on Data Hiding and Multimedia Security IV. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 65–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Volcanology.

Blog post
Andrew E. How Weaponising The Body’s Immune System Can Deliver A Cure For Cancer [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Broadband: Intended Outcomes and Effectiveness of Efforts to Address Adoption Barriers Are Unclear. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Jun. Report No.: GAO-15-473.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alla B. Wellbore Stability Analysis of Sanish Field using 3-D Finite Element Model: Bakken Case Study [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J. Bored, Broke and Armed: The Seeds of South Side Gang Violence. New York Times. 2016 Dec 22;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Taylor 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gelb and Hol 2002; Taylor 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gelb and Hol 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Honkala et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Volcanology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Volcanol.
ISSN (online)2191-5040

Other styles