How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1 K.J. Hemker, “Materials science. Understanding how nanocrystalline metals deform,” Science 304(5668), 221–223 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
1 M.A. Blázquez, and D. Weigel, “Integration of floral inductive signals in Arabidopsis,” Nature 404(6780), 889–892 (2000).
A journal article with 3 authors
1 P.G. Collins, M.S. Arnold, and P. Avouris, “Engineering carbon nanotubes and nanotube circuits using electrical breakdown,” Science 292(5517), 706–709 (2001).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1 K. Koga, G.T. Gao, H. Tanaka, and X.C. Zeng, “Formation of ordered ice nanotubes inside carbon nanotubes,” Nature 412(6849), 802–805 (2001).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1 A. Bejan, Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016).
An edited book
1 V. Timofeev, and D. Sanvitto, editors , Exciton Polaritons in Microcavities: New Frontiers (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012).
A chapter in an edited book
1 B. Adams, and M. Raubal, in Spatial Information Theory: 9th International Conference, COSIT 2009 Aber Wrac’h, France, September 21-25, 2009 Proceedings, edited by K.S. Hornsby, C. Claramunt, M. Denis, and G. Ligozat (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009), pp. 51–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Physics.

Blog post
1 T. Hale, “Just A Small Number Of Driverless Cars On The Highway Could Slash Traffic Jams,” IFLScience, (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1 Government Accountability Office, Automated Systems: Legislative Branch’s Efforts in Sharing Payroll/Personnel Systems (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1 N.H. Do, An Examination of Support Systems to Enable Vietnamese Immigrants to Acquire English Skills, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1 E. Steel, and J. Koblin, “Lawyer Says Fox News Is Under Investigation,” New York Times, B5 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)0021-8979
ISSN (online)1089-7550
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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