How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1 G. Russo, “Bioscience in the sun,” Nature 446(7139), 1112–1113 (2007).
A journal article with 2 authors
1 J.E. Vidale, and Y.-G. Li, “Damage to the shallow Landers fault from the nearby Hector Mine earthquake,” Nature 421(6922), 524–526 (2003).
A journal article with 3 authors
1 I. Marusic, R. Mathis, and N. Hutchins, “Predictive model for wall-bounded turbulent flow,” Science 329(5988), 193–196 (2010).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1 A. Körtzinger, J. Schimanski, U. Send, and D. Wallace, “The ocean takes a deep breath,” Science 306(5700), 1337 (2004).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1 T. Coenen, Essentials of Corporate Fraud (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008).
An edited book
1 H. de Hoop, and P. de Swart, editors , Differential Subject Marking (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2009).
A chapter in an edited book
1 M. Manna, E. Oro, M. Ruffolo, M. Alviano, and N. Leone, in Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems V, edited by A. Hameurlain, J. Küng, and R. Wagner (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012), pp. 91–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Physics.

Blog post
1 A. Carpineti, “Scientists Believe They May Finally Have Figured Out The Mystery Of The ‘Alien Megastructure’ Star,” IFLScience, (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1 Government Accountability Office, Career Education: Status and Needed Improvements (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1 J. Breska, Mentoring for Juvenile Gang Members and At-Risk Youth: A Grant Proposal Project, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1 M. Kelly, “Clinton’s Chief of Staff Ponders Undefined Post,” New York Times, B6 (1992).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Physics
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Phys.
ISSN (print)0021-8979
ISSN (online)1089-7550
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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