How to format your references using the Australian Journal of International Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of International Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. 2000. “US Industry Starts to Think Big by Acting Small.” Nature 408 (6812): 621–622.
A journal article with 2 authors
Newman, Dianne K., and Jillian F. Banfield. 2002. “Geomicrobiology: How Molecular-Scale Interactions Underpin Biogeochemical Systems.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5570): 1071–1077.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitmarsh, R. B., G. Manatschal, and T. A. Minshull. 2001. “Evolution of Magma-Poor Continental Margins from Rifting to Seafloor Spreading.” Nature 413 (6852): 150–154.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Corma, Avelino, María J. Díaz-Cabañas, José Luis Jordá, Cristina Martínez, and Manuel Moliner. 2006. “High-Throughput Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of a Molecular Sieve with 18- and 10-Member Rings.” Nature 443 (7113): 842–845.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaynor, Gerard H. 2014. Decisions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Krötzsch, Markus, and Umberto Straccia, eds. 2012. Web Reasoning and Rule Systems: 6th International Conference, RR 2012, Vienna, Austria, September 10-12, 2012. Proceedings. Vol. 7497. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Browne, T. J., V. Vittal, G. T. Heydt, and Arturo Roman Messina. 2009. “Practical Application of Hilbert Transform Techniques in Identifying Inter-Area Oscillations.” In Inter-Area Oscillations in Power Systems: A Nonlinear and Nonstationary Perspective, edited by Arturo Roman Messina, 101–125. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of International Affairs.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Why Does Chilli Burn, And Why Does Milk Help Soothe The Pain?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Active Commuter Rail Agency Service Contracts. GAO-06-820R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seger, James L. 2017. “The Occupy Movement: Signs of Cultural Shifts in Group Processes Shaped by Place.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McWHORTER, John. 2017. “How to Listen to Donald Trump Every Day for Years.” New York Times, January 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2000; Newman and Banfield 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Newman and Banfield 2002)
  • Three authors: (Whitmarsh, Manatschal, and Minshull 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Corma et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of International Affairs
AbbreviationAust. J. Int. Aff.
ISSN (print)1035-7718
ISSN (online)1465-332X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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