How to format your references using the Australian Journal of International Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of International Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Gorman, Paul A. 2014. “Contrasting Responses of Mean and Extreme Snowfall to Climate Change.” Nature 512 (7515): 416–418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thodey, Kate, and Christina D. Smolke. 2011. “Cell Biology. Bringing It Together with RNA.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6041): 412–413.
A journal article with 3 authors
Siu, Z. B., M. B. A. Jalil, and S. G. Tan. 2014. “Topological State Transport in Topological Insulators under the Influence of Hexagonal Warping and Exchange Coupling to In-Plane Magnetizations.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 5062.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kemner, Kenneth M., Shelly D. Kelly, Barry Lai, Joerg Maser, Edward J. O’loughlin, Deirdre Sholto-Douglas, Zhonghou Cai, Mark A. Schneegurt, Charles F. Kulpa Jr, and Kenneth H. Nealson. 2004. “Elemental and Redox Analysis of Single Bacterial Cells by X-Ray Microbeam Analysis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5696): 686–687.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mallios, William S. 2010. Forecasting in Financial and Sports Gambling Markets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yore, Larry D., Eileen Van der Flier-Keller, David W. Blades, Timothy W. Pelton, and David B. Zandvliet, eds. 2011. Pacific CRYSTAL Centre for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Literacy: Lessons Learned. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Xueji, Haifeng Dong, and Yaping Tian. 2015. “MiRNA Optical Detection.” In MicroRNA Detection and Pathological Functions, edited by Haifeng Dong and Yaping Tian, 57–75. SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of International Affairs.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “Getting Serious About Funny: Psychologists See Humor As A Character Strength.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellites: Changing Requirements, Technical Issues, and Looming Data Gaps Require Focused Attention. GAO-12-604. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson, Donna E. 2010. “How Personality Traits and Job Satisfaction Influence Service Quality in Housing Agencies.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2005. “A Rock Club Closes After a Four-Year Run.” New York Times, October 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Gorman 2014).
This sentence cites two references (O’Gorman 2014; Thodey and Smolke 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thodey and Smolke 2011)
  • Three authors: (Siu, Jalil, and Tan 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kemner et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of International Affairs
AbbreviationAust. J. Int. Aff.
ISSN (print)1035-7718
ISSN (online)1465-332X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles