How to format your references using the Australian Journal of International Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of International Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greenberg, Daniel L. 2007. “Comment on ‘Detecting Awareness in the Vegetative State.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5816): 1221; author reply 1221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grosche, Antje, and Andreas Reichenbach. 2013. “Neuroscience. Developmental Refining of Neuroglial Signaling?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6116): 152–153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hÿtch, Martin J., Jean-Luc Putaux, and Jean-Michel Pénisson. 2003. “Measurement of the Displacement Field of Dislocations to 0.03 A by Electron Microscopy.” Nature 423 (6937): 270–273.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sun, Fugen, Jitong Wang, Huichao Chen, Wenming Qiao, Licheng Ling, and Donghui Long. 2013. “Bottom-up Catalytic Approach towards Nitrogen-Enriched Mesoporous Carbons/Sulfur Composites for Superior Li-S Cathodes.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 2823.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Crichton, Robert R., and Roberta J. Ward. 2006. Metal-Based Neurodegeneration. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Duarte, Eduardo M., ed. 2012. Being and Learning: A Poetic Phenomenology of Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Brusov, Peter, Tatiana Filatova, Natali Orekhova, and Mukhadin Eskindarov. 2015. “New Mechanism of Formation of the Company’s Optimal Capital Structure, Different from Suggested by Trade-Off Theory.” In Modern Corporate Finance, Investments and Taxation, edited by Tatiana Filatova, Natali Orekhova, and Mukhadin Eskindarov, 73–92. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of International Affairs.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “A Decade Of Work Has Decoded This Ancient Greek Astronomy ‘Computer.’” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Drug Testing: Management Problems and Legal Challenges Facing DOT’s Industry Programs. RCED-90-31. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kalavacherla, Raja S. 2017. “DFT Study of the Improved Performance of Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Gold-Copper Alloy in a PEM Fuel Cell.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eisinger, Jesse. 2014. “The Fall Guy.” New York Times, April 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greenberg 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Greenberg 2007; Grosche and Reichenbach 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grosche and Reichenbach 2013)
  • Three authors: (Hÿtch, Putaux, and Pénisson 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sun et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of International Affairs
AbbreviationAust. J. Int. Aff.
ISSN (print)1035-7718
ISSN (online)1465-332X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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