How to format your references using the Australian Journal of International Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of International Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ottino, Julio M. 2003. “Is a Picture Worth 1,000 Words?” Nature 421 (6922): 474–476.
A journal article with 2 authors
Le Goff, Loïc, and Thomas Lecuit. 2011. “Developmental Biology. Gradient Scaling and Growth.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6021): 1141–1142.
A journal article with 3 authors
van Polanen, Vonne, Wouter M. Bergmann Tiest, and Astrid M. L. Kappers. 2014. “Target Contact and Exploration Strategies in Haptic Search.” Scientific Reports 4 (September): 6254.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Palmer, M. A., E. S. Bernhardt, W. H. Schlesinger, K. N. Eshleman, E. Foufoula-Georgiou, M. S. Hendryx, A. D. Lemly, et al. 2010. “Science and Regulation. Mountaintop Mining Consequences.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5962): 148–149.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stevens, Bruce A., and Eckhard Roediger. 2016. Breaking Negative Relationship Patterns. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Goodfellow, Michael, Peter Kämpfer, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Martha E. Trujillo, Ken-Ichiro Suzuki, Wolfgang Ludwig, and William B. Whitman, eds. 2012. Bergey’s Manual® of Systematic Bacteriology: Volume Five The Actinobacteria, Part A and B. Second Edition. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Freeman, Adam, and Joseph C. Rattz. 2010. “Nondeferred Operators.” In Pro LINQ: Language Integrated Query in C# 2010, edited by Joseph C. Rattz, 151–210. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of International Affairs.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Ant Battle Creates Chemicals Previously Only Seen In Lab.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Aviation Security: TSA Should Limit Future Funding for Behavior Detection Activities. GAO-14-158T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, Tiease. 2013. “Implementation of an After-School Program to Reduce the Suicide Risk of Transgender Youth: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, John. 2016. “Boogaard’s Pill Dealer Receives Probation.” New York Times, October 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ottino 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Ottino 2003; Le Goff and Lecuit 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Le Goff and Lecuit 2011)
  • Three authors: (van Polanen, Bergmann Tiest, and Kappers 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Palmer et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of International Affairs
AbbreviationAust. J. Int. Aff.
ISSN (print)1035-7718
ISSN (online)1465-332X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles