How to format your references using the Australian Journal of International Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of International Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tempel, Elmo. 2014. “Cosmology: Meet the Laniakea Supercluster.” Nature 513 (7516): 41–42.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsukawa, Yoshitaka, and Steven J. Zinkle. 2007. “One-Dimensional Fast Migration of Vacancy Clusters in Metals.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5852): 959–962.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fortin, Pascal D., Christopher T. Walsh, and Nathan A. Magarvey. 2007. “A Transglutaminase Homologue as a Condensation Catalyst in Antibiotic Assembly Lines.” Nature 448 (7155): 824–827.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Imamizu, H., S. Miyauchi, T. Tamada, Y. Sasaki, R. Takino, B. Pütz, T. Yoshioka, and M. Kawato. 2000. “Human Cerebellar Activity Reflecting an Acquired Internal Model of a New Tool.” Nature 403 (6766): 192–195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hooker, John. 2000. Logic-Based Methods for Optimization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rothschild, Bruce M. 2012. Herpetological Osteopathology: Annotated Bibliography of Amphibians and Reptiles. Edited by Hans-Peter Schultze and Rodrigo Pellegrini. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Aula, Pekka, and Jouni Heinonen. 2016. “The Power of Corporate Purpose.” In The Reputable Firm: How Digitalization of Communication Is Revolutionizing Reputation Management, edited by Jouni Heinonen, 83–98. Management for Professionals. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of International Affairs.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “Arctic Sea Ice Is Failing To Grow At The Expected Rate.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Aviation Security: Federal Efforts to Secure U.S.-Bound Air Cargo Are in the Early Stages and Could Be Strengthened. GAO-07-660. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Petrovic, Vojislav. 2017. “The K(n)-Local E n-Adams Spectral Sequence and a Cohomological Approximation of Its E2-Term.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lyman, Rick, and Mary Williams Walsh. 2013. “A City Borrows So Its Schools Open on Time.” New York Times, August 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tempel 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Tempel 2014; Matsukawa and Zinkle 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matsukawa and Zinkle 2007)
  • Three authors: (Fortin, Walsh, and Magarvey 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Imamizu et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of International Affairs
AbbreviationAust. J. Int. Aff.
ISSN (print)1035-7718
ISSN (online)1465-332X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles