How to format your references using the Australian Journal of International Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of International Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kotov, Nicholas A. 2010. “Chemistry. Inorganic Nanoparticles as Protein Mimics.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6001): 188–189.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shanahan, Martin E. R., and Khellil Sefiane. 2014. “Recalcitrant Bubbles.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4727.
A journal article with 3 authors
Immerzeel, Walter W., Ludovicus P. H. van Beek, and Marc F. P. Bierkens. 2010. “Climate Change Will Affect the Asian Water Towers.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 328 (5984): 1382–1385.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wisotzki, L., R. Bacon, J. Brinchmann, S. Cantalupo, P. Richter, J. Schaye, K. B. Schmidt, et al. 2018. “Author Correction: Nearly All the Sky Is Covered by Lyman-α Emission around High-Redshift Galaxies.” Nature, October.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barnes, Timothy. 2013. Constantine. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Sacco, Giovanni Maria, and Yannis Tzitzikas, eds. 2009. Dynamic Taxonomies and Faceted Search: Theory, Practice, and Experience. Vol. 25. The Information Retrieval Series. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yadav, Tushar, Alka A. Mungray, and Arvind K. Mungray. 2014. “Fabricated Nanoparticles: Current Status and Potential Phytotoxic Threats.” In Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume: With Cumulative and Comprehensive Index Subjects Covered Volumes 221-230, edited by David M. Whitacre, 83–110. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of International Affairs.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “First Edition Of Newton’s Principia Mathematica Becomes World’s Most Expensive Science Book.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Aviation Research: Perspectives on FAA’s Efforts to Develop New Technology. T-RCED-95-193. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gemmer, John. 2012. “Shape Selection in the Non-Euclidean Model of Elasticity.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, Neil. 2015. “Conspiracy Theories Mix With Somber Condolences.” New York Times, January 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kotov 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Kotov 2010; Shanahan and Sefiane 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shanahan and Sefiane 2014)
  • Three authors: (Immerzeel, van Beek, and Bierkens 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wisotzki et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of International Affairs
AbbreviationAust. J. Int. Aff.
ISSN (print)1035-7718
ISSN (online)1465-332X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles