How to format your references using the Australian Journal of International Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of International Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bürgmann, Roland. 2014. “Earth Science: Warning Signs of the Iquique Earthquake.” Nature 512 (7514): 258–259.
A journal article with 2 authors
Backwell, Patricia R. Y., and Michael D. Jennions. 2004. “Animal Behaviour: Coalition among Male Fiddler Crabs.” Nature 430 (6998): 417.
A journal article with 3 authors
Petit, Rémy J., Feng Sheng Hu, and Christopher W. Dick. 2008. “Forests of the Past: A Window to Future Changes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5882): 1450–1452.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lemay, S. G., J. W. Janssen, M. van den Hout, M. Mooij, M. J. Bronikowski, P. A. Willis, R. E. Smalley, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and C. Dekker. 2001. “Two-Dimensional Imaging of Electronic Wavefunctions in Carbon Nanotubes.” Nature 412 (6847): 617–620.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stavetski, Edward J. 2009. Managing Hedge Fund Managers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gansäuer, Andreas, ed. 2006. Radicals in Synthesis II. Vol. 264. Topics in Current Chemistry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Suzuki, Masakazu, and Katsuhito Yamaguchi. 2016. “Recognition of E-Born PDF Including Mathematical Formulas.” In Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 15th International Conference, ICCHP 2016, Linz, Austria, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings, Part I, edited by Klaus Miesenberger, Christian Bühler, and Petr Penaz, 35–42. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of International Affairs.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “Watch Live As SpaceX Relaunches One Of Its Rockets For The First Time Today.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Railroad Regulation: Changes in Railroad Rates and Service Quality Since 1990. RCED-99-93. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Katukuri, Jayasimha. 2012. “Relationship Extraction and Link Discovery from Biomedical Literature.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Antilla, Susan. 2015. “Fund Settlement.” New York Times, September 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bürgmann 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bürgmann 2014; Backwell and Jennions 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Backwell and Jennions 2004)
  • Three authors: (Petit, Hu, and Dick 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lemay et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of International Affairs
AbbreviationAust. J. Int. Aff.
ISSN (print)1035-7718
ISSN (online)1465-332X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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