How to format your references using the Australian Journal of International Affairs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Australian Journal of International Affairs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz, Lauren. 2011. “Chemoprevention: First Line of Defence.” Nature 471 (7339): S5-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sun, Yugang, and Younan Xia. 2002. “Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5601): 2176–2179.
A journal article with 3 authors
Michael, Holly A., Ann E. Mulligan, and Charles F. Harvey. 2005. “Seasonal Oscillations in Water Exchange between Aquifers and the Coastal Ocean.” Nature 436 (7054): 1145–1148.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xin, Ling, Yong Liu, Baojun Li, Xiang Zhou, Hui Shen, Wenxia Zhao, and Chaolun Liang. 2014. “Constructing Hierarchical Submicrotubes from Interconnected TiO₂ Nanocrystals for High Reversible Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.” Scientific Reports 4 (March): 4479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Estampe, Dominique. 2014. Supply Chain Performance and Evaluation Models. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schmitz, Tony L. 2012. Mechanical Vibrations: Modeling and Measurement. Edited by K. Scott Smith. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Jie, and Ran Bai. 2013. “Research of FMCW for Perfect Binary Sequences Pairs.” In Advances in Mechanical and Electronic Engineering: Volume 3, edited by David Jin and Sally Lin, 21–27. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Australian Journal of International Affairs.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Researchers Claim To Have Found Evidence of Dark Matter In Inner Milky Way.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Highlights of a Forum: Ensuring Opportunities for Disadvantaged Children and Families. GAO-09-18SP. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu, Georgia. 2013. “Religious/Spiritual Beliefs and Practices of Asian/Asian American Mental Health Professionals & Students and the Impact on Treatment.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2016. “A Warning on Bankruptcy in Puerto Rico’s Debt Crisis.” New York Times, February 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gravitz 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Gravitz 2011; Sun and Xia 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sun and Xia 2002)
  • Three authors: (Michael, Mulligan, and Harvey 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Xin et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAustralian Journal of International Affairs
AbbreviationAust. J. Int. Aff.
ISSN (print)1035-7718
ISSN (online)1465-332X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

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