How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Porter, S.M., 2007. Seawater chemistry and early carbonate biomineralization. Science 316, 1302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mullins, C.B., Sitz, G.O., 2008. Chemistry. Taking a selective bite out of methane. Science 319, 736–737.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dominguez, G., Wilkins, G., Thiemens, M.H., 2011. The Soret effect and isotopic fractionation in high-temperature silicate melts. Nature 473, 70–73.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zachos, J.C., Wara, M.W., Bohaty, S., Delaney, M.L., Petrizzo, M.R., Brill, A., Bralower, T.J., Premoli-Silva, I., 2003. A transient rise in tropical sea surface temperature during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. Science 302, 1551–1554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kracke, E.-A., Lodde, K., 2011. Leitfaden Straßenbrücken. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Proctor, C., Linley, P.A. (Eds.), 2013. Research, Applications, and Interventions for Children and Adolescents: A Positive Psychology Perspective. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Fernández de Cañete, J., Galindo, C., Moral, I.G., 2011. System Response Analysis, in: Galindo, C., Moral, I.G. (Eds.), System Engineering and Automation: An Interactive Educational Approach. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 85–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Geophysics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. This Company Wants To Grow Drones In Giant Vats Of Goo [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Trans-Alaska Pipeline: Actions to Improve Safety Are Under Way (No. RCED-95-162). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barbeau, S.J., 2012. A Location-Aware Architecture Supporting Intelligent Real-Time Mobile Applications (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. J. CHIVERS; Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting from Moscow for this article, 2004. Local Rebels Said to Join in Chechen Group’s Raids Across Border. New York Times A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Porter, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Mullins and Sitz, 2008; Porter, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mullins and Sitz, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Zachos et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Geophysics
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Geophy.
ISSN (print)0926-9851

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