How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman, J.M., 2000. Obesity in the new millennium. Nature 404, 632–634.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anfinrud, P., Schotte, F., 2005. Chemistry. X-ray fingerprinting of chemical intermediates in solution. Science 309, 1192–1193.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khan, S.U.M., Al-Shahry, M., Ingler, W.B., Jr, 2002. Efficient photochemical water splitting by a chemically modified n-TiO2. Science 297, 2243–2245.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Garand, E., Zhou, J., Manolopoulos, D.E., Alexander, M.H., Neumark, D.M., 2008. Nonadiabatic interactions in the Cl + H2 reaction probed by ClH2- and ClD2- photoelectron imaging. Science 319, 72–75.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coussy, O., 2005. Poromechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Adan, O.C.G., Samson, R.A. (Eds.), 2011. Fundamentals of mold growth in indoor environments and strategies for healthy living. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen.
A chapter in an edited book
Muñoz, R., Gonzales, C., Price, K., Rosario, A., Huggel, C., Frey, H., García, J., Cochachín, A., Portocarrero, C., Mesa, L., 2016. Managing Glacier Related Risks Disaster in the Chucchún Catchment, Cordillera Blanca, Peru, in: Salzmann, N., Huggel, C., Nussbaumer, S.U., Ziervogel, G. (Eds.), Climate Change Adaptation Strategies – An Upstream-Downstream Perspective. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 59–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Geophysics.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. A Rare European Bison Has Been Found Decapitated On A Reserve [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Longer Combination Trucks: Potential Infrastructure Impacts, Productivity Benefits, and Safety Concerns (No. RCED-94-106). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hutsell, J.D., 2009. School board members’ perception on their roles and responsibilities in developing policy that affects student achievement (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2012. New York Investigates Insurer Payments to Banks. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Anfinrud and Schotte, 2005; Friedman, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Anfinrud and Schotte, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Garand et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Geophysics
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Geophy.
ISSN (print)0926-9851

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