How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trainor, L., 2008. Science & music: the neural roots of music. Nature 453, 598–599.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frey, B.J., Dueck, D., 2007. Clustering by passing messages between data points. Science 315, 972–976.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheung, W.W.L., Watson, R., Pauly, D., 2013. Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature 497, 365–368.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Thirumurugan, K., Sakamoto, T., Hammer, J.A., 3rd, Sellers, J.R., Knight, P.J., 2006. The cargo-binding domain regulates structure and activity of myosin 5. Nature 442, 212–215.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yu, J., Tao, D., 2013. Modern Machine Learning Techniques and Their Applications in Cartoon Animation Research. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Koch, I., Reisig, W., Schreiber, F. (Eds.), 2011. Modeling in Systems Biology: The Petri Net Approach, Computational Biology. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Mohr, D., Zachmann, G., 2010. Silhouette Area Based Similarity Measure for Template Matching in Constant Time, in: Perales, F.J., Fisher, R.B. (Eds.), Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects: 6th International Conference, AMDO 2010, Port d’Andratx, Mallorca, Spain, July 7-9, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Geophysics.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Astronomers Solve Supernova Mystery [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. FAA Budget: 1991 Funding Request for Computers and Communications Can Be Reduced (No. IMTEC-90-89). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pence, P.L., 2010. Emotional intelligence, motivation, and retention among undergraduate students attending associate-degree nursing programs in Illinois (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2017. Reading by Numbers. New York Times BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trainor, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Frey and Dueck, 2007; Trainor, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frey and Dueck, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Thirumurugan et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Geophysics
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Geophy.
ISSN (print)0926-9851

Other styles