How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickinson, D.K., 2011. Teachers’ language practices and academic outcomes of preschool children. Science 333, 964–967.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pelham, R.J., Chang, F., 2002. Actin dynamics in the contractile ring during cytokinesis in fission yeast. Nature 419, 82–86.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaczmarczyk, A., Vorholt, J.A., Francez-Charlot, A., 2014. Synthetic vanillate-regulated promoter for graded gene expression in Sphingomonas. Sci. Rep. 4, 6453.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gompert, Z., Fordyce, J.A., Forister, M.L., Shapiro, A.M., Nice, C.C., 2006. Homoploid hybrid speciation in an extreme habitat. Science 314, 1923–1925.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diab, W.W., Frazier, H.M., 2011. Ethernet in the First Mile. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Uyar, A.S., Ozcan, E., Urquhart, N. (Eds.), 2013. Automated Scheduling and Planning: From Theory to Practice, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chini, I., 2008. ICT policy as a governance domain: The case of Greece and the European Commission, in: Avgerou, C., Smith, M.L., Besselaar, P. van der (Eds.), Social Dimensions Of Information And Communication Technology Policy: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Human Choice and Computers (HCC8), IFIP TC 9, Pretoria, South Africa, September 25-26, 2008, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 45–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Geophysics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Hubble Snaps Awesome Image Of Jupiter As It Makes Its Closest Approach To Earth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Federal Research Grants: Maintaining Public Accountability Without Inhibiting Creative Research (No. 094378). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ochse, A.R., 2013. Targeted Killing, Drones and International Law: How U.S. Practice is Shaping International Law (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, H., 2008. Bush Is Likely to End Term With Iran Issue Unsettled. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickinson, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Dickinson, 2011; Pelham and Chang, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pelham and Chang, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Gompert et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Geophysics
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Geophy.
ISSN (print)0926-9851

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