How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner, D.L., 2014. Space science: Near-Earth space shows its stripes. Nature 507, 308–309.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gelb, M.H., Hol, W.G.J., 2002. Parasitology. Drugs to combat tropical protozoan parasites. Science 297, 343–344.
A journal article with 3 authors
McMichael, A.J., Butler, C.D., Folke, C., 2003. New visions for addressing sustainability. Science 302, 1919–1920.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dahl, C.D., Rasch, M.J., Tomonaga, M., Adachi, I., 2013. Developmental processes in face perception. Sci. Rep. 3, 1044.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinberg, S., 2011. Cost-Contained Regulatory Compliance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Horlacher, S. (Ed.), 2016. Transgender and Intersex: Theoretical, Practical, and Artistic Perspectives. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kusakabe, T., Iryo, T., Asakura, Y., 2010. Data Mining for Traffic Flow Analysis: Visualization Approach, in: Barceló, J., Kuwahara, M. (Eds.), Traffic Data Collection and Its Standardization, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Geophysics.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Natural Disasters Spark Civil Wars [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. National Science Foundation-Supported Science Education Materials (No. HRD-76-134). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De La Cruz, C.F., 2009. A program evaluation of a literacy initiative for students with moderate to severe disabilities (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell, M., 2017. The Provocateur President Meets Athletes’ Resolve. New York Times SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gelb and Hol, 2002; Turner, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gelb and Hol, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Dahl et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Geophysics
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Geophy.
ISSN (print)0926-9851

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