How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Geophysics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Geophysics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCabe, H., 2000. Galileo set for suicide flight. Nature 406, 8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kilger, C., Bartenbach, K., 2002. Patent law. New rules for German professors. Science 298, 1173–1175.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hsieh, C.-S., Kovářík, J., Logan, T., 2014. How central are clients in sexual networks created by commercial sex? Sci. Rep. 4, 7540.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Heemsbergen, D.A., Berg, M.P., Loreau, M., van Hal, J.R., Faber, J.H., Verhoef, H.A., 2004. Biodiversity effects on soil processes explained by interspecific functional dissimilarity. Science 306, 1019–1020.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubry, J.-F., Brinzei, N., Mazouni, M.-H., 2016. Systems Dependability Assessment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Curwen, P., Haucap, J., Preissl, B. (Eds.), 2009. Telecommunication Markets: Drivers and Impediments, Contributions to Economics. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
DeFelipe, J., Alonso-Nanclares, L., 2013. The Synapse: Differences Between Men and Women, in: Pfaff, D.W., Christen, Y. (Eds.), Multiple Origins of Sex Differences in Brain: Neuroendocrine Functions and Their Pathologies, Research and Perspectives in Endocrine Interactions. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Geophysics.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. Robotics Firm Creates 3D-Printed Superhero Prosthetic Arms [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Federal Research: The SEMATECH Consortium’s Start-up Activities (No. RCED-90-37). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, S., 2009. Semiconductor and metal oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, physical properties and industrial application (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kepner, T., 2017. A Racist Gesture Results in a Delayed Punishment. New York Times SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCabe, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kilger and Bartenbach, 2002; McCabe, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kilger and Bartenbach, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Heemsbergen et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Geophysics
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Geophy.
ISSN (print)0926-9851

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