How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kraus VB (2014) Osteoarthritis: The zinc link. Nature 507:441–442
A journal article with 2 authors
Barber MF, Elde NC (2014) Nutritional immunity. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin. Science 346:1362–1366
A journal article with 3 authors
Frommer WB, Schulze WX, Lalonde S (2003) Plant science. Hexokinase, Jack-of-all-trades. Science 300:261–263
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Blasco R, Finlayson C, Rosell J, et al (2014) The earliest pigeon fanciers. Sci Rep 4:5971

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rossiter A (2008) Professional Excellence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Carpi F (ed) (2016) Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Liu R, Zhang H, Yang Z (2013) How Does a Researcher Become an Entrepreneur in the High-Tech Industrial Cluster? A Case Study. In: Ferreira JJM, Raposo M, Rutten R, Varga A (eds) Cooperation, Clusters, and Knowledge Transfer: Universities and Firms Towards Regional Competitiveness. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 59–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Genetics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Fire In The Sky: The Southern Lights In Indigenous Oral Traditions. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) School Age Demographics: Recent Trends Pose New Educational Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson VM (2013) In vitro thyroid hormone metabolism: Effects of nuclear receptor activation on the metabolic profiles of thyroxine in rat and human hepatocytes. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2017) What the Chief Justice Should Have Said. New York Times SR3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kraus 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kraus 2014; Barber and Elde 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barber and Elde 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Blasco et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Genetics
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Genet.
ISSN (print)1234-1983
ISSN (online)2190-3883
General Medicine

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