How to format your references using the Surgical Neurology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Neurology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ross G. Obituary: Richard Dalitz (1925-2006). Nature 2006; 440:162.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Greaves M, Maley CC. Clonal evolution in cancer. Nature 2012; 481:306–313.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Robertson JL, Kolmakova-Partensky L, Miller C. Design, function and structure of a monomeric ClC transporter. Nature 2010; 468:844–847.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang J, Gudiksen MS, Duan X, Cui Y, Lieber CM. Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires. Science 2001; 293:1455–1457.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Safari M, Ariff M, Mohamad S. Sukuk Securities. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd: Singapore, 2014
An edited book
1. Lepora NF, Mura A, Mangan M, Verschure PFMJ, Desmulliez M, Prescott TJ (eds). Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems: 5th International Conference, Living Machines 2016, Edinburgh, UK, July 19-22, 2016. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016
A chapter in an edited book
1. Um B-H, Hanley TR. A Comparison of Simple Rheological Parameters and Simulation Data for Zymomonas mobilis Fermentation Broths with High Substrate Loading in a 3-L Bioreactor, in Adney WS , McMillan JD , Mielenz J , Klasson KT (eds): Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held April 29–May 2, 2007, in Denver, Colorado. Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2008, pp.29–38

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Neurology International.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Bats Navigate in 3D Using a Donut-Shaped Compass in Their Brain. IFLScience 2014; Available: Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Surface Effect Ships. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1973

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chhun S. Assessing the role of vacuolar trafficking in fifteen candidate env genes at the late endosome to vacuole interface in S. cerevisiae. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly K. James Staley’s Series of Unfortunate Events. New York Times 2017;BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [3,5,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Neurology International
AbbreviationSurg. Neurol. Int.
ISSN (print)2229-5097
ISSN (online)2152-7806
ScopeClinical Neurology

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