How to format your references using the Surgical Neurology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Surgical Neurology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt T. Safety concerns force NASA to condemn satellite to fiery end. Nature 2000; 404:423.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomassen MJ, Kavuru MS. Lung disease: Treatment by cell transplant. Nature 2014; 514:438–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ginsburg GS, Angrist M, Cook-Deegan R. Public health. Genomics and medicine at a crossroads in Chernobyl. Science 2006; 314:62–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
D’Ostilio K, Cremers J, Delvaux V, Sadzot B, Garraux G. Impaired automatic and unconscious motor processes in Parkinson’s disease. Sci Rep 2013; 3:2095.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dowrick DJ. Earthquake Risk Reduction. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2005
An edited book
Hayat MA (ed). Tumors of the Central Nervous System, Volume 6: Spinal Tumors (Part 1). Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012
A chapter in an edited book
Stadtmüller S, Cardoso J, Junghans M. Service Semantics, in Cardoso J , Fromm H , Nickel S , Satzger G , Studer R , Weinhardt C (eds): Fundamentals of Service Systems, Service Science: Research and Innovations in the Service Economy. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015, pp.137–78

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Surgical Neurology International.

Blog post
Hamilton K. The Soldiers Who Died Of Homesickness. IFLScience 2016; Available: Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Corps of Engineers: Extent and Status of Expedited Permit Processing for Public-Utility Companies, Natural Gas Companies, and Railroad Carriers. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2017

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mete RJ. Can STEM initiatives be social justice oriented: An analysis of urban school reform via smaller learning communities. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Verkuil PR. The Case for Bureaucracy. New York Times 2016;A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleSurgical Neurology International
AbbreviationSurg. Neurol. Int.
ISSN (print)2229-5097
ISSN (online)2152-7806
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles