# How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kane, G. (2011). Particle physics is at a turning point. Nature, 480(7378), 415.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reid, D. W., & Nicchitta, C. V. (2015). LOCAL TRANSLATION. Comment on “Principles of ER cotranslational translocation revealed by proximity-specific ribosome profiling.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6240), 1217.
A journal article with 3 authors
Griesinger, C. B., Richards, C. D., & Ashmore, J. F. (2005). Fast vesicle replenishment allows indefatigable signalling at the first auditory synapse. Nature, 435(7039), 212–215.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Poizot, P., Laruelle, S., Grugeon, S., Dupont, L., & Tarascon, J. M. (2000). Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Nature, 407(6803), 496–499.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blumberg, L. M. (2010). Temperature-Programmed Gas Chromatography. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Redmill, F., & Anderson, T. (Eds.). (2005). Constituents of Modern System-safety Thinking: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Safety-critical Systems Symposium, Southampton, UK, 8–10 February 2005. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zielosko, B. (2015). Sequential Optimization of $$\gamma$$ -Decision Rules Relative to Length, Coverage and Number of Misclassifications. In J. F. Peters, A. Skowron, D. Ślȩzak, H. S. Nguyen, & J. G. Bazan (Eds.), Transactions on Rough Sets XIX (pp. 65–82). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Ecology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, January 4). Science Says You Should Really Stop Sticking Things Into Your Ears.

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Internet Protocol Transition: FCC Should Strengthen Its Data Collection Efforts to Assess the Transition’s Effects (No. GAO-16-167). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conway, A. H. (2014). Signs and symptoms of moral injury in female vietnam veterans: A qualitative examination of the nvvrs (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Genzlinger, N., Hale, M., Lyons, M., & Brantley, B. (2017, August 8). Vacation Selections For Trump. New York Times, p. C1.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kane, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Kane, 2011; Reid & Nicchitta, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

• Two authors: (Reid & Nicchitta, 2015)
• Three authors: (Griesinger, Richards, & Ashmore, 2005)
• 6 or more authors: (Poizot, Laruelle, Grugeon, Dupont, & Tarascon, 2000)