How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huber, J. A. (2015). MICROBIAL ECOLOGY. Making methane down deep. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6246), 376–377.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weygand-Durasevic, I., & Ibba, M. (2010). Cell biology. New roles for codon usage. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5998), 1473–1474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cao, Y. C., Jin, R., & Mirkin, C. A. (2002). Nanoparticles with Raman spectroscopic fingerprints for DNA and RNA detection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5586), 1536–1540.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Brejc, K., van Dijk, W. J., Klaassen, R. V., Schuurmans, M., van Der Oost, J., Smit, A. B., & Sixma, T. K. (2001). Crystal structure of an ACh-binding protein reveals the ligand-binding domain of nicotinic receptors. Nature, 411(6835), 269–276.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Radzevich, S. P. (2013). Geometry of Surfaces. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Hassell, J. (2007). Windows Vista: Beyond the Manual (T. Campbell, Ed.). Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Dorfs, D., & Eychmüller, A. (2008). Multishell semiconductor nanocrystals. In A. L. Rogach (Ed.), Semiconductor Nanocrystal Quantum Dots: Synthesis, Assembly, Spectroscopy and Applications (pp. 101–117). Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Ecology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, July 13). Here’s What The Sun Looks Like From Every Planet In Our Solar System. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Digital Service Programs: Assessing Results and Coordinating with Chief Information Officers Can Improve Delivery of Federal Projects (No. GAO-16-733T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Manuel, D. G. (2019). Integrate or Innovate: Controlling Schedule Risk in Major Defense Acquisition Programs (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, August 31). Hot for a Dairy Queen Sign. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huber, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Huber, 2015; Weygand-Durasevic & Ibba, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weygand-Durasevic & Ibba, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Cao, Jin, & Mirkin, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Brejc et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0021-8901
ISSN (online)1365-2664

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