How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mutter, J. (2010). Disasters widen the rich-poor gap. Nature, 466(7310), 1042.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lumpkin, E. A., & Caterina, M. J. (2007). Mechanisms of sensory transduction in the skin. Nature, 445(7130), 858–865.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bomfleur, B., McLoughlin, S., & Vajda, V. (2014). Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic stasis in royal ferns. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6177), 1376–1377.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shinzato, C., Shoguchi, E., Kawashima, T., Hamada, M., Hisata, K., Tanaka, M., … Satoh, N. (2011). Using the Acropora digitifera genome to understand coral responses to environmental change. Nature, 476(7360), 320–323.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jayaweera, S. K. (2014). Signal Processing for Cognitive Radios. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Thotahewa, K. M. S. (2014). Ultra Wideband Wireless Body Area Networks. (J.-M. Redouté & M. R. Yuce, Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Maynard, A. E., & Greenfield, P. M. (2005). An Ethnomodel of Teaching and Learning. In M. I. Martini (Ed.), Learning in Cultural Context: Family, Peers, and School (pp. 75–103). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Ecology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017, February 3). Immunotherapy: Training The Body To Fight Cancer. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Impacts of Education Reform (No. T-PEMD-89-2). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sommer, A. (2017). How Experiences Influence and Inform School Principals’ Actions to Further Develop Teachers’ Instructional Practice (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, M. (2017, May 8). Two Ex-Correction Officials Deny Clearing Trips to Maine. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turekian, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Livio, 2012; Robinson, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lumpkin & Caterina, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Bomfleur, McLoughlin, & Vajda, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wei et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0021-8901
ISSN (online)1365-2664

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