How to format your references using the Journal of Animal Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Animal Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sinclair DA. Cell biology. An age of instability. Science. 2003;301:1859–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Chiarugi A, Moskowitz MA. Cell biology. PARP-1--a perpetrator of apoptotic cell death? Science. 2002;297:200–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ferguson NM, Galvani AP, Bush RM. Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution. Nature. 2003;422:428–33.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Thomas DB, Nascimbene PC, Dove CJ, Grimaldi DA, James HF. Seeking carotenoid pigments in amber-preserved fossil feathers. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Pepper G, Oliver MJ. The Liquidity Theory of Asset Prices. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. López-Campos G. Microarray Detection and Characterization of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens. Martínez-Suárez JV, Aguado-Urda M, López-Alonso V, editors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. MatutinoviĆ I. Energy Security and the Social Use of Energy. In: Barbir F, Ulgiati S, editors. Energy Options Impact on Regional Security. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 93–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Animal Science and Technology.

Blog post
1. Fang J. How The Giraffe Got Its Neck [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Planning: Agencies Are Attempting to Expedite Environmental Reviews, but Barriers Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Aug. Report No.: RCED-94-211.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wheeler JA. The Scaling of High Harmonics with Mid-Infrared Driving Fields and a Method for the Spatial Isolation of Individual Subfemtosecond Pulses [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rockwell J. Berlin Stories. New York Times. 2017 Jun 2;BR49.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Animal Science and Technology
AbbreviationJ. Anim. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (online)2055-0391

Other styles