How to format your references using the Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Trounson A. Keith H. Campbell (1954-2012). Nature. 2012;491:193.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kress TL, Guthrie C. Molecular biology. Accurate RNA siting and splicing gets help from a DEK-hand. Science. 2006;312:1886–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ginsburg GS, Angrist M, Cook-Deegan R. Public health. Genomics and medicine at a crossroads in Chernobyl. Science. 2006;314:62–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bohorquez JC, Gourley S, Dixon AR, Spagat M, Johnson NF. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency. Nature. 2009;462:911–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Mattu A, Grossman SA, Rosen PL. Geriatric Emergencies. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Dalpiaz F, Dix J, Riemsdijk MB van, editors. Engineering Multi-Agent Systems: Second International Workshop, EMAS 2014, Paris, France, May 5-6, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Klyce SD, Palanker DV, Edwards KH, Krueger RR. Imaging Systems and Image-Guided Surgery. In: Krueger RR, Talamo JH, Lindstrom RL, editors. Textbook of Refractive Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery (ReLACS). New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 49–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infection.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. Reindeer Are Still Very Radioactive 30 Years After Chernobyl [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Characteristics and Competitiveness of the Internet Backbone Market. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Oct. Report No.: GAO-02-16.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Matos G. Re-fashioning goddesses: Exploring women’s archetypal fashion in the classroom [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Marx L. Amanda Pekoe and Christopher Lueck. New York Times. 2011 May 8;ST13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfection
ISSN (print)0300-8126
ISSN (online)1439-0973
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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