How to format your references using the Journal of African Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Novick, R.P., 2008. Medicine. Combating impervious bugs. Science 319, 910–911.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lasaga, A.C., Luttge, A., 2001. Variation of crystal dissolution rate based on a dissolution stepwave model. Science 291, 2400–2404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, M.-H., Chen, X.-P., Wang, Q., 2014. Wetting failure of hydrophilic surfaces promoted by surface roughness. Sci. Rep. 4, 5376.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, T., Wang, J., Li, C., Zhang, W., Zhang, L., An, L., Pang, T., Shi, X., Liao, H., 2014. Nafamostat mesilate attenuates neuronal damage in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia through thrombin inhibition. Sci. Rep. 4, 5531.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schroeder, K., Thompson, T., Frith, K., Pencheon, D., 2012. Sustainable Healthcare. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Sourisseau, J.-M. (Ed.), 2015. Family Farming and the Worlds to Come. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Androulidakis, I., Kioupakis, F.–. E., 2016. Intercepting Fixed Line Telephony, in: Kioupakis, F.–. E. (Ed.), Industrial Espionage and Technical Surveillance Counter Measurers. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 37–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Trade.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. There Is Water On Mars, But What Does This Mean For Life? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Information Technology: Further Improvements Needed to identify and Oversee Poorly Planned and Performing Projects (No. GAO-07-1211T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kingston, S.E., 2012. Genome-wide analysis of divergence and introgression in towhee hybrid zones (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2017. The Teacher Learns She’s a Student, Too. New York Times C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Novick, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Lasaga and Luttge, 2001; Novick, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lasaga and Luttge, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Trade
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Trade
ISSN (print)2214-8515

Other styles