How to format your references using the Journal of African Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coyne, J.A., 2006. Comment on “Gene regulatory networks and the evolution of animal body plans.” Science 313, 761; author reply 761.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bers, D.M., Harris, S.P., 2011. Translational medicine: to the rescue of the failing heart. Nature 473, 36–39.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foley, S.F., Buhre, S., Jacob, D.E., 2003. Evolution of the Archaean crust by delamination and shallow subduction. Nature 421, 249–252.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frearson, J.A., Brand, S., McElroy, S.P., Cleghorn, L.A.T., Smid, O., Stojanovski, L., Price, H.P., Guther, M.L.S., Torrie, L.S., Robinson, D.A., Hallyburton, I., Mpamhanga, C.P., Brannigan, J.A., Wilkinson, A.J., Hodgkinson, M., Hui, R., Qiu, W., Raimi, O.G., van Aalten, D.M.F., Brenk, R., Gilbert, I.H., Read, K.D., Fairlamb, A.H., Ferguson, M.A.J., Smith, D.F., Wyatt, P.G., 2010. N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors as new leads to treat sleeping sickness. Nature 464, 728–732.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rogstad, D.H., Mileant, A., Pham, T.T., 2005. Antenna Arraying Techniques in the Deep Space Network. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vilcinskas, A. (Ed.), 2011. Insect Biotechnology, Biologically-Inspired Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Abler, G., Ehlting, M., 2007. Smart shopping in the European low cost flight market, in: Conrady, R., Buck, M. (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Global Tourism 2007. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 41–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Trade.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Timelapse Of Tarantula Molting Looks Like Alien Birth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. Health Information Technology: HHS Should Assess the Effectiveness of Its Efforts to Enhance Patient Access to and Use of Electronic Health Information (No. GAO-17-305). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eisenberg, D.A., 2012. Effectiveness of an eel curriculum on student achievement for the California earth science standard on ocean currents A comparative analysis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Scouting Report. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Coyne, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bers and Harris, 2011; Coyne, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bers and Harris, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Frearson et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Trade
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Trade
ISSN (print)2214-8515

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