How to format your references using the Journal of African Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Joyce, G.F., 2002. The antiquity of RNA-based evolution. Nature 418, 214–221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, E.H., Olson, E.N., 2005. Unveiling the mechanisms of cell-cell fusion. Science 308, 369–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oliveira, E.A., Andrade, J.S., Jr, Makse, H.A., 2014. Large cities are less green. Sci. Rep. 4, 4235.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krusin-Elbaum, L., Newns, D.M., Zeng, H., Derycke, V., Sun, J.Z., Sandstrom, R., 2004. Room-temperature ferromagnetic nanotubes controlled by electron or hole doping. Nature 431, 672–676.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Melville, A., 2010. Political Atlas of the Modern World. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Drewes, H. (Ed.), 2009. Geodetic Reference Frames: IAG Symposium Munich, Germany, 9-14 October 2006, International Association of Geodesy Symposia. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lucchetti, R., 2011. Godfrey H. Hardy, in: Bartocci, C., Betti, R., Guerraggio, A., Lucchetti, R. (Eds.), Mathematical Lives: Protagonists of the Twentieth Century From Hilbert to Wiles. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Trade.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Global Climate On The Verge Of A Multi-Decadal Change [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Korean Version) (No. GAO-06-188). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baciu, A.B., 2010. Biopolitics and the influenza pandemics of 1918 and 2009 in the United States: Power, immunity, and the law (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2015. James Wood, 85; Revived A.&P. Chain. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Joyce, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Chen and Olson, 2005; Joyce, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Olson, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Krusin-Elbaum et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Trade
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Trade
ISSN (print)2214-8515

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