How to format your references using the Journal of African Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Li, G., 2013. On the safety of ITER accelerators. Sci. Rep. 3, 2602.
A journal article with 2 authors
Willis, J.K., Church, J.A., 2012. Climate change. Regional sea-level projection. Science 336, 550–551.
A journal article with 3 authors
Altshuler, D., Daly, M.J., Lander, E.S., 2008. Genetic mapping in human disease. Science 322, 881–888.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Masly, J.P., Jones, C.D., Noor, M.A.F., Locke, J., Orr, H.A., 2006. Gene transposition as a cause of hybrid sterility in Drosophila. Science 313, 1448–1450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yang, H., Lee, E.K., 2016. Healthcare Analytics: From Data to Knowledge to Healthcare Improvement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
An edited book
Soler, E.A., Jordà, M.P.S. (Eds.), 2007. Intercultural Language Use and Language Learning. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Martin, A., Quarles, L.D., 2012. Evidence for FGF23 Involvement in a Bone-Kidney Axis Regulating Bone Mineralization and Systemic Phosphate and Vitamin D Homeostasis, in: Kuro-o, M. (Ed.), Endocrine FGFs and Klothos, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer US, New York, NY, pp. 65–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Trade.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. Women Aren’t Failing At Science — Science Is Failing Women [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Transit Grants: Need for Improved Predictability, Data, and Monitoring in Application Processing (No. RCED-00-260). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, A.C., 2012. The lived experience of the adult African American female who has lived in multiple foster care placements (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2002. Dreams Taste Bittersweet As a Small Store Is Sold. New York Times 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Li, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Li, 2013; Willis and Church, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Willis and Church, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Masly et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Trade
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Trade
ISSN (print)2214-8515

Other styles