How to format your references using the Journal of African Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sandholm, T., 2015. Computer science. Solving imperfect-information games. Science 347, 122–123.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grabbe, C., Dikic, I., 2008. Cell biology. Going global on ubiquitin. Science 322, 872–873.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feldon, D.F., Maher, M.A., Timmerman, B.E., 2010. Graduate education. Performance-based data in the study of STEM Ph.D. education. Science 329, 282–283.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Horner-Devine, M.C., Lage, M., Hughes, J.B., Bohannan, B.J.M., 2004. A taxa-area relationship for bacteria. Nature 432, 750–753.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barker, P., Chang, J., 2013. Basic Family Therapy. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Hübner, M., Silvano, C. (Eds.), 2016. Near Threshold Computing: Technology, Methods and Applications, 1st ed. 2016. ed. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Marbach-Ad, G., Egan, L.C., Thompson, K.V., 2015. Consultation for Individuals and Groups of Faculty, in: Egan, L.C., Thompson, K.V. (Eds.), A Discipline-Based Teaching and Learning Center: A Model for Professional Development. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 89–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Trade.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Mike Baird Is Right, Culling Sharks Doesn’t Work – Here’s What We Can Do Instead [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. Tribal Transportation: Better Data Could Improve Road Management and Inform Indian Student Attendance Strategies (No. GAO-17-423). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen, M.W., 2017. Popular Culture and War in the Vietnam Era (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2017. Leonard Cohen Book Scheduled for 2018. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sandholm, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Grabbe and Dikic, 2008; Sandholm, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grabbe and Dikic, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Horner-Devine et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Trade
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Trade
ISSN (print)2214-8515

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