How to format your references using the Journal of African Trade citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Trade. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benson, O., 2011. Assembly of hybrid photonic architectures from nanophotonic constituents. Nature 480, 193–199.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petersen, J., Hagan, I.M., 2005. Polo kinase links the stress pathway to cell cycle control and tip growth in fission yeast. Nature 435, 507–512.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cumings, J., Collins, P.G., Zettl, A., 2000. Peeling and sharpening multiwall nanotubes. Nature 406, 586.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Delfs, J.M., Zhu, Y., Druhan, J.P., Aston-Jones, G., 2000. Noradrenaline in the ventral forebrain is critical for opiate withdrawal-induced aversion. Nature 403, 430–434.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lavi, M.R., 2016. The Impact of IFRS on Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ehrenpreis, E.D., Marsh, R. de W., Small, W., Jr. (Eds.), 2015. Radiation Therapy for Pelvic Malignancy and its Consequences. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Boland, G.M., Gershenwald, J.E., 2016. Principles of Melanoma Staging, in: Kaufman, H.L., Mehnert, J.M. (Eds.), Melanoma, Cancer Treatment and Research. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 131–148.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Trade.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Your Musical Taste Is Culturally Programmed, Not Innate [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Airspace System: Emerging Technologies May Offer Alternatives to the Instrument Landing System (No. RCED-93-33). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yao, D., 2009. In situ activity of NAC11-7 roseobacters in coastal waters off the Chesapeake Bay based on ftsZ expression (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steinberger, M., 2013. The Afterlife Of The Best Tennis Player In The World. New York Times MM31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benson, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Benson, 2011; Petersen and Hagan, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petersen and Hagan, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Delfs et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Trade
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Trade
ISSN (print)2214-8515

Other styles