How to format your references using the Journal of African Cultural Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Cultural Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nadeem, Muhammad. 2014. “Unconditionally Secure Commitment in Position-Based Quantum Cryptography.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lacour, Jérôme, and David Linder. 2007. “Chemistry. A Counterion Strategy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5837): 462–463.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marangon, Davide G., Giuseppe Vallone, and Paolo Villoresi. 2014. “Random Bits, True and Unbiased, from Atmospheric Turbulence.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5490.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cooper, O. R., D. D. Parrish, A. Stohl, M. Trainer, P. Nédélec, V. Thouret, J. P. Cammas, et al. 2010. “Increasing Springtime Ozone Mixing Ratios in the Free Troposphere over Western North America.” Nature 463 (7279): 344–348.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schaik, Carel P. Van. 2015. The Primate Origins of Human Nature. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chincholkar, Sudhir, and Linda Thomashow, eds. 2013. Microbial Phenazines: Biosynthesis, Agriculture and Health. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schlötterer, Christian, and Daniel Dieringer. 2005. “A Novel Test Statistic for the Identification of Local Selective Sweeps Based on Microsatellite Gene Diversity.” In Selective Sweep, edited by Dmitry Nurminsky, 55–64. Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Cultural Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Bear Saves Crow From Drowning.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Joint Planning and Development Office: Progress and Key Issues in Planning the Transition to the Next Generation Air Transportation System. GAO-07-693T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E, Chen-Chun. 2014. “The Syntax of Comparative Correlatives in Mandarin Chinese.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, Ben. 2016. “Not Everyone Is a Football Fan.” New York Times, September 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nadeem 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nadeem 2014; Lacour and Linder 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lacour and Linder 2007)
  • Three authors: (Marangon, Vallone, and Villoresi 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Cooper et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Cultural Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Cult. Stud.
ISSN (print)1369-6815
ISSN (online)1469-9346
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

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