How to format your references using the Journal of African Cultural Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Cultural Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buetow, Kenneth H. 2005. “Cyberinfrastructure: Empowering a ‘Third Way’ in Biomedical Research.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5723): 821–824.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ernst, Marc O., and Martin S. Banks. 2002. “Humans Integrate Visual and Haptic Information in a Statistically Optimal Fashion.” Nature 415 (6870): 429–433.
A journal article with 3 authors
Allesina, Stefano, David Alonso, and Mercedes Pascual. 2008. “A General Model for Food Web Structure.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5876): 658–661.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Waters, Michael R., Thomas W. Stafford Jr, H. Gregory McDonald, Carl Gustafson, Morten Rasmussen, Enrico Cappellini, Jesper V. Olsen, et al. 2011. “Pre-Clovis Mastodon Hunting 13,800 Years Ago at the Manis Site, Washington.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6054): 351–353.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGrath, Alister E. 2011. Darwinism and the Divine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Bashiri, Asher, Avi Harlev, and Ashok Agarwal, eds. 2016. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Evidence-Based Evaluation, Diagnosis and Treatment. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Axelsson, Emil, Koen Claessen, and Mary Sheeran. 2005. “Wired: Wire-Aware Circuit Design.” In Correct Hardware Design and Verification Methods: 13th IFIP WG 10.5 Advanced Research Working Conference, CHARME 2005, Saarbrücken, Germany, October 3-6, 2005. Proceedings, edited by Dominique Borrione and Wolfgang Paul, 5–19. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Cultural Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Sci-Fi Style Prosthetic Arm Wins FDA Approval.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. FTS2001: Transition Challenges Jeopardize Program Goals. GAO-01-289. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darnell, Carl. 2017. “Sharecropping in Higher Education: Case Study of the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University - Florida State University Joint College of Engineering.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2016. “Mets’ Young Starters Come at Bargain Price in 2017.” New York Times, December 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Smith 2012; Antonelli 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ernst and Banks 2002)
  • Three authors: (Allesina, Alonso, and Pascual 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Motoyoshi et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Cultural Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Cult. Stud.
ISSN (print)1369-6815
ISSN (online)1469-9346
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

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