How to format your references using the Journal of African Cultural Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Cultural Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hobson, J. Allan. 2005. “Sleep Is of the Brain, by the Brain and for the Brain.” Nature 437 (7063): 1254–1256.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaspari, Michael, and Michael D. Weiser. 2014. “Ecology. Meet the New Boss, Same as the Old Boss.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6174): 974–975.
A journal article with 3 authors
Glasauer, Susan, Sean Langley, and Terry J. Beveridge. 2002. “Intracellular Iron Minerals in a Dissimilatory Iron-Reducing Bacterium.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5552): 117–119.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lamb, Joleah B., Bette L. Willis, Evan A. Fiorenza, Courtney S. Couch, Robert Howard, Douglas N. Rader, James D. True, et al. 2018. “Plastic Waste Associated with Disease on Coral Reefs.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 359 (6374): 460–462.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stanley, Weinstein, and Barden Pamela. 2017. The Complete Guide to Fundraising Management. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
McEwan, Iain J., and Raj Kumar, eds. 2015. Nuclear Receptors: From Structure to the Clinic. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Gullà, Francesca, Silvia Ceccacci, Michele Germani, and Lorenzo Cavalieri. 2015. “Design Adaptable and Adaptive User Interfaces: A Method to Manage the Information.” In Ambient Assisted Living: Italian Forum 2014, edited by Bruno Andò, Pietro Siciliano, Vincenzo Marletta, and Andrea Monteriù, 47–58. Biosystems & Biorobotics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Cultural Studies.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “The Myths And Facts Of HIV And AIDS.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Rail Transit: FTA Programs Are Helping Address Transit Agencies’ Safety Challenges, but Improved Performance Goals and Measures Could Better Focus Efforts. GAO-11-199. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ziegler, Robert T. 2017. “The Impact of Strategic Planning Involvement on Employee Engagement in a Federal Public Health Agency.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bidgood, Jess, and John Schwartz. 2017. “Hurricane Nate Hits Gulf Coast Region Still Recovering From Katrina.” New York Times, October 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hobson 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hobson 2005; Kaspari and Weiser 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaspari and Weiser 2014)
  • Three authors: (Glasauer, Langley, and Beveridge 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lamb et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Cultural Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Cult. Stud.
ISSN (print)1369-6815
ISSN (online)1469-9346
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

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