How to format your references using the Journal of African Cultural Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Cultural Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Archer, David. 2003. “Ocean Science. Who Threw That Snowball?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5646): 791–792.
A journal article with 2 authors
Postma, Erik, and Arie J. van Noordwijk. 2005. “Gene Flow Maintains a Large Genetic Difference in Clutch Size at a Small Spatial Scale.” Nature 433 (7021): 65–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lape, Remigijus, David Colquhoun, and Lucia G. Sivilotti. 2008. “On the Nature of Partial Agonism in the Nicotinic Receptor Superfamily.” Nature 454 (7205): 722–727.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, Lina, Sun-Mi Park, Alexei V. Tumanov, Annika Hau, Kenjiro Sawada, Christine Feig, Jerrold R. Turner, et al. 2010. “CD95 Promotes Tumour Growth.” Nature 465 (7297): 492–496.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schumer, Peter D. 2005. Mathematical Journeys. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hsu, Robert C-H, and Shangguang Wang, eds. 2014. Internet of Vehicles – Technologies and Services: First International Conference, IOV, Beijing, China, September 1-3, 2014. Proceedings. Vol. 8662. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Benson, Edward, Adam Marcus, Fabian Howahl, and David Karger. 2010. “Talking about Data: Sharing Richly Structured Information through Blogs and Wikis.” In The Semantic Web – ISWC 2010: 9th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2010, Shanghai, China, November 7-11, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part I, edited by Peter F. Patel-Schneider, Yue Pan, Pascal Hitzler, Peter Mika, Lei Zhang, Jeff Z. Pan, Ian Horrocks, and Birte Glimm, 48–63. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Cultural Studies.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “The Hilarious Winners Of The Comedy Wildlife Photo Awards 2016.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1979. Federal R&D Budget. 109022. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frantz, Deborah E. 2014. “The Effects of Aroclor 1254 on the Reproductive Function of Male Round Stingrays (Urobatis Halleri).” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2012. “Coming for ‘Cake Boss’ And Finding More.” New York Times, September 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Archer 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Archer 2003; Postma and van Noordwijk 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Postma and van Noordwijk 2005)
  • Three authors: (Lape, Colquhoun, and Sivilotti 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chen et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Cultural Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Cult. Stud.
ISSN (print)1369-6815
ISSN (online)1469-9346
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

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