How to format your references using the Journal of African Cultural Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Cultural Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. 2000. “Congress Wakes up to Climate Change.” Nature 405 (6785): 385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boyet, M., and R. W. Carlson. 2005. “142Nd Evidence for Early (>4.53 Ga) Global Differentiation of the Silicate Earth.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5734): 576–581.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mazmanian, Sarkis K., June L. Round, and Dennis L. Kasper. 2008. “A Microbial Symbiosis Factor Prevents Intestinal Inflammatory Disease.” Nature 453 (7195): 620–625.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sansom, Owen J., Valerie S. Meniel, Vanesa Muncan, Toby J. Phesse, Julie A. Wilkins, Karen R. Reed, J. Keith Vass, Dimitris Athineos, Hans Clevers, and Alan R. Clarke. 2007. “Myc Deletion Rescues Apc Deficiency in the Small Intestine.” Nature 446 (7136): 676–679.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chiang, Hsiao-Dong. 2010. Direct Methods for Stability Analysis of Electric Power Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cheema, Sukhinder Kaur, ed. 2006. Biochemistry of Atherosclerosis. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Schnädelbach, Holger, Areti Galani, and Martin Flintham. 2010. “Embedded Mixed Reality Environments.” In The Engineering of Mixed Reality Systems, edited by Emmanuel Dubois, Philip Gray, and Laurence Nigay, 57–78. Human-Computer Interaction Series. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Cultural Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Schrödinger’s Cat Gets A Reality Check.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Spectrum Management: FCC’s Use and Enforcement of Buildout Requirements. GAO-14-236. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seipert, Karen Greene. 2013. “A Correlational Analysis of the Values of Baby Boomer and Generation X Rural Public School Principals.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, George Gene. 2015. “From the Drawing Board to the Page.” New York Times, October 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2000; Boyet and Carlson 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boyet and Carlson 2005)
  • Three authors: (Mazmanian, Round, and Kasper 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sansom et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Cultural Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Cult. Stud.
ISSN (print)1369-6815
ISSN (online)1469-9346
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

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