How to format your references using the Journal of African Cultural Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Cultural Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Running, Steven W. 2006. “Climate Change. Is Global Warming Causing More, Larger Wildfires?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5789): 927–928.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra, and Adam D. Linstedt. 2012. “Manganese Blocks Intracellular Trafficking of Shiga Toxin and Protects against Shiga Toxicosis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335 (6066): 332–335.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Kelin, Yan Hu, and Jiangheng He. 2012. “Deformation Cycles of Subduction Earthquakes in a Viscoelastic Earth.” Nature 484 (7394): 327–332.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Giraldez, Antonio J., Yuichiro Mishima, Jason Rihel, Russell J. Grocock, Stijn Van Dongen, Kunio Inoue, Anton J. Enright, and Alexander F. Schier. 2006. “Zebrafish MiR-430 Promotes Deadenylation and Clearance of Maternal MRNAs.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5770): 75–79.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ponniah, Paulraj. 2010. Data Warehousing Fundamentals for It Professionals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Szomszor, Martin, and Patty Kostkova, eds. 2012. Electronic Healthcare: Third International Conference, EHealth 2010, Casablanca, Morocco, December 13-15, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 69. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmidt, Frank-Rainer. 2011. “The β-Lactam Antibiotics: Current Situation and Future Prospects in Manufacture and Therapy.” In Industrial Applications, edited by Martin Hofrichter, 101–121. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Cultural Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Bizarre Asteroid Has ‘Negative Gravity.’” IFLScience. IFLScience.“negative-gravity”/.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Federal Education Funding: Overview of K-12 and Early Childhood Education Programs. GAO-10-51. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Howard, Andrew G. 2009. “Large Margin Transformation Learning.” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Yablonsky, Linda. 2011. “Harsh Realities.” New York Times, July 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Running 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Running 2006; Mukhopadhyay and Linstedt 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mukhopadhyay and Linstedt 2012)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Hu, and He 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Giraldez et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Cultural Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Cult. Stud.
ISSN (print)1369-6815
ISSN (online)1469-9346
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

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