How to format your references using the Journal of African Cultural Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Cultural Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rosenzweig, Amy C. 2015. “Biochemistry: Breaking Methane.” Nature 518 (7539): 309–310.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tirlapur, Uday K., and Karsten König. 2002. “Targeted Transfection by Femtosecond Laser.” Nature 418 (6895): 290–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harris, R. A., J. Rogers, and A. Milosavljevic. 2007. “Human-Specific Changes of Genome Structure Detected by Genomic Triangulation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5822): 235–237.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Hong, Linda Westin, Yi Nong, Shari Birnbaum, Jacob Bendor, Hjalmar Brismar, Eric Nestler, Anita Aperia, Marc Flajolet, and Paul Greengard. 2009. “Norbin Is an Endogenous Regulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Signaling.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5959): 1554–1557.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Costa, Peter J. 2017. Applied Mathematics for the Analysis of Biomedical Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Macdonald, Craig, Iadh Ounis, Vassilis Plachouras, Ian Ruthven, and Ryen W. White, eds. 2008. Advances in Information Retrieval: 30th European Conference on IR Research, ECIR 2008, Glasgow, UK, March 30-April 3, 2008. Proceedings. Vol. 4956. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Amarouche, Idir Amine, Djamal Benslimane, Mahmoud Barhamgi, Michael Mrissa, and Zaia Alimazighi. 2011. “Electronic Health Record Data-as-a-Services Composition Based on Query Rewriting.” In Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems IV: Special Issue on Database Systems for Biomedical Applications, edited by Abdelkader Hameurlain, Josef Küng, Roland Wagner, Christian Böhm, Johann Eder, and Claudia Plant, 95–123. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Cultural Studies.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “What Happens If You Add Molten Aluminum To Dry Ice and Liquid Nitrogen?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Major Science and Technology Issues. PAD-81-35. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rostambeigi, Narges. 2010. “Analyzing the Correlates of Patients’ Adoption of Preventative Health Services: Perceived Risk, Cost and Availability of Health Care Services.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein, Joseph. 2017. “Asked to Reduce Prison Rape, Then Accused of Sexual Abuse.” New York Times, May 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rosenzweig 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Rosenzweig 2015; Tirlapur and König 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tirlapur and König 2002)
  • Three authors: (Harris, Rogers, and Milosavljevic 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Cultural Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Cult. Stud.
ISSN (print)1369-6815
ISSN (online)1469-9346
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

Other styles