How to format your references using the Journal of African Cultural Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of African Cultural Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lunt, Dan. 2014. “Palaeoclimate Science: Causes and Effects of Antarctic Ice.” Nature 511 (7511): 536–537.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fritz, Günter, and Peter M. H. Kroneck. 2015. “MICROBIOLOGY. Sulfate to Go.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6267): 1476–1477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Jian-Tao, Changfeng Chen, and Yoshiyuki Kawazoe. 2013. “New Carbon Allotropes with Helical Chains of Complementary Chirality Connected by Ethene-Type π-Conjugation.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 3077.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dias-Ferreira, Eduardo, João C. Sousa, Irene Melo, Pedro Morgado, Ana R. Mesquita, João J. Cerqueira, Rui M. Costa, and Nuno Sousa. 2009. “Chronic Stress Causes Frontostriatal Reorganization and Affects Decision-Making.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5940): 621–625.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cannon, David L. 2016. CISA®. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gontero, Paolo, Roger S. Kirby, and Culley C. Carson III, eds. 2013. Problem Based Urology. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pasha, Mustapha Kamal. 2013. “Modernity’s Islamicist: Sayyid Qutb’s Theocentric Reconstruction of Sovereignty.” In Modernity’s Classics, edited by Sarah C. Humphreys and Rudolf G. Wagner, 101–120. Transcultural Research – Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of African Cultural Studies.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “Astronomers Are Hunting For Life Around A Nearby Star.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Certification of New Airlines: Department of Transportation Has Taken Action to Improve Its Certification Process. RCED-96-8. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Besson, Paul S. 2015. “Affective Organizational Commitment: A Comparative View of the Experience of 5-7 Year Managerial Employees Who Participated in an Employee Identity Network.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt, Michael S., Matt Apuzzo, and Maggie Haberman. 2017. “Mueller Is Said to Seek White House Interviews in Russia Inquiry.” New York Times, August 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lunt 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lunt 2014; Fritz and Kroneck 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fritz and Kroneck 2015)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Chen, and Kawazoe 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dias-Ferreira et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of African Cultural Studies
AbbreviationJ. Afr. Cult. Stud.
ISSN (print)1369-6815
ISSN (online)1469-9346
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Linguistics and Language
Cultural Studies

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