How to format your references using the Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2000) ‘Climate change expert stirs new controversy’, Nature, 407(6800), p. 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boles, L. C. and Lohmann, K. J. (2003) ‘True navigation and magnetic maps in spiny lobsters’, Nature, 421(6918), pp. 60–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
Polyak, V., Hill, C. and Asmerom, Y. (2008) ‘Age and evolution of the Grand Canyon revealed by U-Pb dating of water table-type speleothems’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5868), pp. 1377–1380.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ebina, H., Misawa, N., Kanemura, Y. and Koyanagi, Y. (2013) ‘Harnessing the CRISPR/Cas9 system to disrupt latent HIV-1 provirus’, Scientific reports, 3, p. 2510.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fraser, J. and Simkins, B. J. (2009) Enterprise Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zhou, J. and Yung, M. (eds) (2010) Applied Cryptography and Network Security: 8th International Conference, ACNS 2010, Beijing, China, June 22-25, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).
A chapter in an edited book
Malik, R. and Roop, P. S. (2005) ‘Adaptive Techniques for Specification Matching in Embedded Systems: A Comparative Study’, in Romijn, J., Smith, G., and Pol, J. van de (eds) Integrated Formal Methods: 5th International Conference, IFM 2005, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, November 29 - December 2, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (Lecture Notes in Computer Science), pp. 33–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017) 2016’s Arctic Report Card: Temperatures Went Crazy, IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at: (Accessed: 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Contracts Awarded to Aero Spacelines, Inc., for Airlift Outsized Cargo. B-146804. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cai, S. (2008) 3D Numerical Modeling of Dry/Wet Contact Mechanics for Rough, Multilayered Elastic-Plastic Solid Surfaces and Effects of Hydrophilicity/Hydrophobicity During Separation with Applications. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. and Schmitt, E. (2017) ‘State Crumbling, ISIS Is Reclaiming Insurgent Roots’, New York Times, 8 July, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2000; Boles and Lohmann, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boles and Lohmann, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Polyak, Hill and Asmerom, 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ebina et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety
ISSN (print)2411-3174
ISSN (online)2411-0388

Other styles