How to format your references using the Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis, E. (2000) ‘Volcanic action at Axial Seamount’, Nature, 403(6768), pp. 379–380.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dijk, D.-J. and Skeldon, A. C. (2015) ‘Biological rhythms: Human sleep before the industrial era’, Nature, 527(7577), pp. 176–177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Armitage, J. J., Collier, J. S. and Minshull, T. A. (2010) ‘The importance of rift history for volcanic margin formation’, Nature, 465(7300), pp. 913–917.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Adams, W. M., Brockington, D., Dyson, J. and Vira, B. (2003) ‘Managing tragedies: understanding conflict over common pool resources’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5652), pp. 1915–1916.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henry-Labordère, A. (2009) Virtual Roaming Systems for GSM, GPRS and UMTS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Merz, H. (2009) Building Automation: Communication systems with EIB/KNX, LON und BACnet. Edited by T. Hansemann and C. Hübner. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (Signals and Communication Technology).
A chapter in an edited book
Al-shargie, F. M., Tang, T. B., Badruddin, N. and Kiguchi, M. (2016) ‘Mental Stress Quantification Using EEG Signals’, in Ibrahim, F., Usman, J., Mohktar, M. S., and Ahmad, M. Y. (eds) International Conference for Innovation in Biomedical Engineering and Life Sciences: ICIBEL2015, 6-8 December 2015, Putrajaya, Malaysia. Singapore: Springer (IFMBE Proceedings), pp. 15–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015) Researchers Have Uncovered Perfectly Preserved Fossilized Brains That Are Half-A-Billion Years Old, IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at: (Accessed: 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Designing Evaluations: A Workbook. 129366. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butts, P. (2017) Green Roof Vegetable Production in Three Different Growth Media. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Urbina, I. (2015) ‘Forced Labor for Cheap Fish’, New York Times, 27 July, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davis, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Davis, 2000; Dijk and Skeldon, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dijk and Skeldon, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Armitage, Collier and Minshull, 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Adams et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal for Veterinary Medicine, Biotechnology and Biosafety
ISSN (print)2411-3174
ISSN (online)2411-0388

Other styles