How to format your references using the Journal for Nature Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal for Nature Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Riordan, C. G. (2015). Organometallic Chemistry. Catalysis by nickel in its high oxidation state. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6227), 1203–1204.
A journal article with 2 authors
Apesteguía, S., & Zaher, H. (2006). A Cretaceous terrestrial snake with robust hindlimbs and a sacrum. Nature, 440(7087), 1037–1040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chih, B., Engelman, H., & Scheiffele, P. (2005). Control of excitatory and inhibitory synapse formation by neuroligins. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5713), 1324–1328.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yong, H. S., Lim, P.-E., Tan, J., Ng, Y. F., Eamsobhana, P., & Suana, I. W. (2014). Molecular phylogeny of Orthetrum dragonflies reveals cryptic species of Orthetrum pruinosum. Scientific Reports, 4, 5553.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lagraña, F. (2016). E-mail and Behavioral Changes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Demetriou, K. N. (Ed.). (2015). The European Union in Crisis: Explorations in Representation and Democratic Legitimacy. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Keramaris, E., & Pechlivanidis, G. (2016). Inclined Open Channels: The Influence of Bed in Turbulent Characteristics of the Flow. In M. Braza, A. Bottaro, & M. Thompson (Eds.), Advances in Fluid-Structure Interaction: Updated contributions reflecting new findings presented at the ERCOFTAC Symposium on Unsteady Separation in Fluid-Structure Interaction, 17-21 June 2013, St John Resort, Mykonos, Greece (pp. 75–88). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal for Nature Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 27). Genetically Engineered Athletes Could Be Heading This Way Soon. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Social Security Administration Field Offices: Reduced Workforce Faces Challenges as Baby Boomers Retire (No. GAO-08-737T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sparks, G. A. (2008). Charismatic leadership: An exploratory investigation of the techniques of influence (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herszenhorn, D. M., & Barry, E. (2011, December 4). Russian Voters Send a Message To Putin’s Party. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Riordan, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Apesteguía & Zaher, 2006; Riordan, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Apesteguía & Zaher, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Chih, Engelman, & Scheiffele, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yong et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal for Nature Conservation
AbbreviationJ. Nat. Conserv.
ISSN (print)1617-1381
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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