How to format your references using the Journal for Nature Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal for Nature Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oard, D. W. (2008). Social science. Unlocking the potential of the spoken word. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5897), 1787–1788.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, C.-Y., & Bard, A. J. (2002). Pressure-induced insulator conductor transition in a photoconducting organic liquid-crystal film. Nature, 418(6894), 162–164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hartl, F. U., Bracher, A., & Hayer-Hartl, M. (2011). Molecular chaperones in protein folding and proteostasis. Nature, 475(7356), 324–332.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sarkar, I., Hauber, I., Hauber, J., & Buchholz, F. (2007). HIV-1 proviral DNA excision using an evolved recombinase. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5833), 1912–1915.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Epstein, M. (2012). The Elements of Continuum Biomechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Landoni, G., Mucchetti, M., Zangrillo, A., & Bellomo, R. (Eds.). (2015). Reducing Mortality in Critically Ill Patients. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bell, S. (2015). In the Drink: Sunken Aircraft of the Battle of Saipan. In J. F. McKinnon & T. L. Carrell (Eds.), Underwater Archaeology of a Pacific Battlefield: The WWII Battle of Saipan (pp. 49–62). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal for Nature Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 5). Early Results of Human Trials For Anti-Aging Drug Are Promising. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Systemwide Education Reform: Federal Leadership Could Facilitate District-Level Efforts (HRD-93-97). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McIlwain, C. J. (2017). Defense Institutional Building - Integrating the Work [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, May 1). Kendrick Lamar At No. 1 for 2nd Week. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Oard, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Liu & Bard, 2002; Oard, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu & Bard, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Hartl et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sarkar et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal for Nature Conservation
AbbreviationJ. Nat. Conserv.
ISSN (print)1617-1381
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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