How to format your references using the Journal for Nature Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal for Nature Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carter, E. A. (2008). Challenges in modeling materials properties without experimental input. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5890), 800–803.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harrison, S. A., & Tong, F. (2009). Decoding reveals the contents of visual working memory in early visual areas. Nature, 458(7238), 632–635.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lapointe, C. P., Mason, T. G., & Smalyukh, I. I. (2009). Shape-controlled colloidal interactions in nematic liquid crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5956), 1083–1086.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cao, S., Li, C., Wang, L., Shang, M., Wei, G., Zheng, J., & Yang, W. (2014). Long-lived and well-resolved Mn2+ ion emissions in CuInS-ZnS quantum dots. Scientific Reports, 4, 7510.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yoder, C. H., Leber, P. A., & Thomsen, M. W. (2010). The Bridge to Organic Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jain, L. C., Aidman, E. V., & Abeynayake, C. (Eds.). (2011). Innovations in Defence Support Systems -2: Socio-Technical Systems (Vol. 338). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hendler, T., Admon, R., & Papo, D. (2007). In the mind of the Beholder Neuronal mediators for the effect of emotional experience on~quality of life. In M. S. Ritsner & A. G. Awad (Eds.), Quality of Life Impairment in Schizophrenia, Mood and Anxiety Disorders: New Perspectives on Research and Treatment (pp. 57–66). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal for Nature Conservation.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, January 10). Scientists To Hunt For Planets In Our Nearest Star System With Funding For New Instrument. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Management Agenda for the Presidential and Congressional Transition: Develop and Manage Information Technology to Meet the Government’s Needs (No. D15086). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckley, M. K. (2012). A study of at-risk students’ perceptions of an online academic credit recovery program in an urban North Texas independent school district [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, May 5). Family of Seau Decides To Give Brain for Study. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carter, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Carter, 2008; Harrison & Tong, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Harrison & Tong, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Lapointe et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Cao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal for Nature Conservation
AbbreviationJ. Nat. Conserv.
ISSN (print)1617-1381
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles