How to format your references using the Computers and Operations Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Operations Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kostelecký, V.A., 2014. Precision measurement: The magnetic proton. Nature 509, 571–572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoveyda, A.H., Zhugralin, A.R., 2007. The remarkable metal-catalysed olefin metathesis reaction. Nature 450, 243–251.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dominguez, P., Jacobson, A.G., Jefferies, R.P.S., 2002. Paired gill slits in a fossil with a calcite skeleton. Nature 417, 841–844.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Splawski, I., Timothy, K.W., Tateyama, M., Clancy, C.E., Malhotra, A., Beggs, A.H., Cappuccio, F.P., Sagnella, G.A., Kass, R.S., Keating, M.T., 2002. Variant of SCN5A sodium channel implicated in risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Science 297, 1333–1336.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paret, D., 2012. Flexray and its Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Lecomte, A., Tronçon, S. (Eds.), 2011. Ludics, Dialogue and Interaction: PRELUDE Project - 2006-2009. Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Thaman, K.H., 2007. Partnerships for Progressing Cultural Democracy in Teacher Education in Pacific Island Countries, in: Townsend, T., Bates, R. (Eds.), Handbook of Teacher Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Operations Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Fastest Known Organism Is A Fungus - Check It Out In Slow Motion [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Local Coordination Prevents Duplication of Services at Federally Sponsored Indian Education Projects (No. HRD-81-101). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Batson, G., 2008. Head Start and at -risk students: Perceptions of administrators, practitioners, and parents (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenberg, E., Stack, L., 2017. Times Square Chaos as Driver Kills a Woman and Injures 22. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kostelecký, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hoveyda and Zhugralin, 2007; Kostelecký, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoveyda and Zhugralin, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Splawski et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Operations Research
AbbreviationComput. Oper. Res.
ISSN (print)0305-0548
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Management Science and Operations Research
Modelling and Simulation

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