How to format your references using the Computers and Operations Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Operations Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blumenthal, D., 2005. Ecology. Interrelated causes of plant invasion. Science 310, 243–244.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ley, T.J., Hamilton, B.H., 2008. Sociology. The gender gap in NIH grant applications. Science 322, 1472–1474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Powell, K.I., Chase, J.M., Knight, T.M., 2013. Invasive plants have scale-dependent effects on diversity by altering species-area relationships. Science 339, 316–318.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Harvey, C.D., Collman, F., Dombeck, D.A., Tank, D.W., 2009. Intracellular dynamics of hippocampal place cells during virtual navigation. Nature 461, 941–946.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bachmann, H., Steinle, A., 2012. Precast Concrete Structures. Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany.
An edited book
Santos, N.C., Pasquini, L., Correia, A.C.M., Romaniello, M. (Eds.), 2008. Precision Spectroscopy in Astrophysics: Proceedings of the ESO/Lisbon/Aveiro Conference held in Aveiro, Portugal, 11–15 September 2006, ESO Astrophysics Symposia, European Southern Observatory. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Pelagatti*, M.M., 2010. Price Indexes across Space and Time and the Stochastic Properties of Prices, in: Biggeri, L., Ferrari, G. (Eds.), Price Indexes in Time and Space: Methods and Practice, Contributions to Statistics. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, pp. 97–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Operations Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. World War I To The Age Of The Cyborg: The Surprising History Of Prosthetic Limbs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1971. Need To Remove More Low-Cost, Low-Usage Items From Inventories (No. B-133118). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salazar, A., 2012. Small school, big gains: A case study of urban high school reform (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2005. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: At Least 20 Killed In Mall Fire. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blumenthal, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Blumenthal, 2005; Ley and Hamilton, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ley and Hamilton, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Harvey et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Operations Research
AbbreviationComput. Oper. Res.
ISSN (print)0305-0548
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Management Science and Operations Research
Modelling and Simulation

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