How to format your references using the Computers and Operations Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Operations Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G., 2003. High-voltage shock sparks fusion from X-ray crush. Nature 422, 549.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, J.S., Boeke, J.D., 2001. Transcription. Is S phase important for transcriptional silencing? Science 291, 608–609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Melcák, I., Hoelz, A., Blobel, G., 2007. Structure of Nup58/45 suggests flexible nuclear pore diameter by intermolecular sliding. Science 315, 1729–1732.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Daffis, S., Szretter, K.J., Schriewer, J., Li, J., Youn, S., Errett, J., Lin, T.-Y., Schneller, S., Zust, R., Dong, H., Thiel, V., Sen, G.C., Fensterl, V., Klimstra, W.B., Pierson, T.C., Buller, R.M., Gale, M., Jr, Shi, P.-Y., Diamond, M.S., 2010. 2’-O methylation of the viral mRNA cap evades host restriction by IFIT family members. Nature 468, 452–456.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glisic, S.G., 2011. Advanced Wireless Communications & Internet. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Mishra, S.K. (Ed.), 2011. Topics in Nonconvex Optimization: Theory and Applications, Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Képes, K., Breitenbücher, U., Gómez Sáez, S., Guth, J., Leymann, F., Wieland, M., 2016. Situation-Aware Execution and Dynamic Adaptation of Traditional Workflow Models, in: Aiello, M., Johnsen, E.B., Dustdar, S., Georgievski, I. (Eds.), Service-Oriented and Cloud Computing: 5th IFIP WG 2.14 European Conference, ESOCC 2016, Vienna, Austria, September 5-7, 2016, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 69–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Operations Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Episodic Memory Formation In The Hippocampus [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Internal Revenue Service: Results of Review of IRS Spending for Business Systems Modernization (No. GAO-01-920). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks, J., 2017. Playing-With the World: Toy Story’s Aesthetics and Metaphysics of Play (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shultz, G.P., 2015. O’Reilly, Wrong on Reagan. New York Times A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel, 2003; Smith and Boeke, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Boeke, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Daffis et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Operations Research
AbbreviationComput. Oper. Res.
ISSN (print)0305-0548
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Management Science and Operations Research
Modelling and Simulation

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