How to format your references using the Computers and Operations Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Operations Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Engelhardt, B., 2011. Neuroscience. Blood-brain barrier differentiation. Science 334, 1652–1653.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hutvágner, G., Zamore, P.D., 2002. A microRNA in a multiple-turnover RNAi enzyme complex. Science 297, 2056–2060.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ooi, T.L., Wu, B., He, Z.J., 2001. Distance determined by the angular declination below the horizon. Nature 414, 197–200.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chodavarapu, R.K., Feng, S., Bernatavichute, Y.V., Chen, P.-Y., Stroud, H., Yu, Y., Hetzel, J.A., Kuo, F., Kim, J., Cokus, S.J., Casero, D., Bernal, M., Huijser, P., Clark, A.T., Krämer, U., Merchant, S.S., Zhang, X., Jacobsen, S.E., Pellegrini, M., 2010. Relationship between nucleosome positioning and DNA methylation. Nature 466, 388–392.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hulin, W., Jin-Ting, Z., 2006. Nonparametric Regression Methods for Longitudinal Data Analysis: Mixed-Effects Modeling Approaches, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bisognano, J.D., Earley, M.B., Baker, M.L. (Eds.), 2009. Manual of Heart Failure Management. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Tao, X., Cui, Q., Xu, X., Zhang, P., 2012. Power Allocation of Group Cell System, in: Cui, Q., Xu, X., Zhang, P. (Eds.), Group Cell Architecture for Cooperative Communications, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 47–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Operations Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Was An Erection-Causing Venomous Spider Really Found In A German Shipping Container? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Why NASA’s Property Accounting and Control System Should Be Improved (No. FGMSD-75-27). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Singh, A., 2017. Improving the Usability of Typometric Solutions (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. Two Pitchers Conquer Struggles and Morph Into Game 2 Starters. New York Times SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Engelhardt, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Engelhardt, 2011; Hutvágner and Zamore, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hutvágner and Zamore, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Chodavarapu et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Operations Research
AbbreviationComput. Oper. Res.
ISSN (print)0305-0548
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Management Science and Operations Research
Modelling and Simulation

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