How to format your references using the Computers and Operations Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers and Operations Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bocquet-Appel, J.-P., 2011. When the world’s population took off: the springboard of the Neolithic Demographic Transition. Science 333, 560–561.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roediger, H.L., 3rd, McDermott, K.B., 2011. Neuroscience. Remember when? Science 333, 47–48.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dhuime, B., Hawkesworth, C., Cawood, P., 2011. Geochemistry. When continents formed. Science 331, 154–155.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kang, H., Park, H., Park, Y., Jung, M., Kim, B.C., Wallace, G., Cho, G., 2014. Fully roll-to-roll gravure printable wireless (13.56 MHz) sensor-signage tags for smart packaging. Sci. Rep. 4, 5387.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hübschmann, H.-J., 2015. Handbook of GC-MS. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Chakravorti, S., 2013. Recent Trends in the Condition Monitoring of Transformers: Theory, Implementation and Analysis, Power Systems. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Scheider, S., Janowicz, K., Kuhn, W., 2009. Grounding Geographic Categories in the Meaningful Environment, in: Hornsby, K.S., Claramunt, C., Denis, M., Ligozat, G. (Eds.), Spatial Information Theory: 9th International Conference, COSIT 2009 Aber Wrac’h, France, September 21-25, 2009 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 69–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers and Operations Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. NASA Successfully Tests 3D-Printed Rocket Parts [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Coast Guard Programs: Relationship between Resources Used and Results Achieved Needs to Be Clearer (No. GAO-04-432). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steiner, C.P., 2015. Three essays in applied microeconomics (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R., 2016. Juilliard’s Fast Takes on French Baroque. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bocquet-Appel, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bocquet-Appel, 2011; Roediger and McDermott, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roediger and McDermott, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Kang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers and Operations Research
AbbreviationComput. Oper. Res.
ISSN (print)0305-0548
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Management Science and Operations Research
Modelling and Simulation

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