How to format your references using the IZA Journal of Labor Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IZA Journal of Labor Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White JWC (2004) Paleoclimate. Do I hear a million? Science 304:1609–1610
A journal article with 2 authors
Lyons JR, Young ED (2005) CO self-shielding as the origin of oxygen isotope anomalies in the early solar nebula. Nature 435:317–320
A journal article with 3 authors
Birbeck GL, Meyer A-C, Ogunniyi A (2015) Nervous system disorders across the life course in resource-limited settings. Nature 527:S167-71
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Stappers BW, Gaensler BM, Kaspi VM, et al (2003) An x-ray nebula associated with the millisecond pulsar B1957+20. Science 299:1372–1374

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gallant BJ (2006) Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Manual. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hakeem KR, Akhtar MS, Abdullah SNA (eds) (2016) Plant, Soil and Microbes: Volume 1: Implications in Crop Science, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Burachik RS, Kaya CY (2010) A Deflected Subgradient Method Using a General Augmented Lagrangian Duality with Implications on Penalty Methods. In: Burachik RS, Yao J-C (eds) Variational Analysis and Generalized Differentiation in Optimization and Control: In Honor of Boris S. Mordukhovich. Springer, New York, NY, pp 109–132

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IZA Journal of Labor Economics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) Polar Bears:Climate Change Is A Bigger Threat Than Trophy Hunting. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Intelligent Transportation Systems: Improved DOT Collaboration and Communication Could Enhance the Use of Technology to Manage Congestion. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jurka J (2010) The importance of being a complement: CED effects revisited. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Ties to Miami and to Cuba Run Deep in Marlins Bidder. New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White 2004).
This sentence cites two references (White 2004; Lyons and Young 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lyons and Young 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Stappers et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleIZA Journal of Labor Economics
AbbreviationIZA J. Labor Econ.
ISSN (online)2193-8997

Other styles