How to format your references using the IZA Journal of Labor Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IZA Journal of Labor Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Woollings T (2011) Atmospheric science. Ocean effects of blocking. Science 334:612–613
A journal article with 2 authors
Galán JE, Wolf-Watz H (2006) Protein delivery into eukaryotic cells by type III secretion machines. Nature 444:567–573
A journal article with 3 authors
Gambardella A, Prezioso M, Cavallini M (2014) Tunnel conductivity switching in a single nanoparticle-based nano floating gate memory. Sci Rep 4:4196
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Smith JA, Seltzer GO, Farber DL, et al (2005) Early local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes. Science 308:678–681

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tschannen-Moran B, Tschannen-Moran M (2010) Evocative Coaching. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA
An edited book
Hoang MP, Mihm MC Jr (eds) (2014) Melanocytic Lesions: A Case Based Approach. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Arshad S (2016) The Relationship Between Islamic Stock Markets and Business Cycles: A Regional Perspective. In: Alam N, Rizvi SAR (eds) Islamic Capital Markets: Volatility, Performance and Stability. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 45–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IZA Journal of Labor Economics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) The Five Most Poisonous Substances: From Polonium To Mercury. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) University Research: Most Federal Agencies Need to Better Protect against Financial Conflicts of Interest. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Albrinck BM (2010) An Exploratory Study of Urban Transportation and Air Quality Issues Using CO as an Indicator. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker L (2007) Near Seattle, Tribal Casinos Lead to Even Bigger Bets. New York Times C6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Woollings 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Galán and Wolf-Watz 2006; Woollings 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Galán and Wolf-Watz 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleIZA Journal of Labor Economics
AbbreviationIZA J. Labor Econ.
ISSN (online)2193-8997

Other styles