How to format your references using the IZA Journal of Labor Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IZA Journal of Labor Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bova B (2000) Eternal verities, eternal questions. Nature 404:439
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans JW, Thiel PA (2010) Chemistry. A little chemistry helps the big get bigger. Science 330:599–600
A journal article with 3 authors
Finkel T, Deng C-X, Mostoslavsky R (2009) Recent progress in the biology and physiology of sirtuins. Nature 460:587–591
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Vogelbein WK, Lovko VJ, Shields JD, et al (2002) Pfiesteria shumwayae kills fish by micropredation not exotoxin secretion. Nature 418:967–970

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misra S, Goswami S (2017) Network Routing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Gevorkyan AV, Canuto O (eds) (2016) Financial Deepening and Post-Crisis Development in Emerging Markets: Current Perils and Future Dawns. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Nuhoğlu Soysal Y, Wong S-Y (2007) Educating Future Citizens in Europe and Asia. In: Benavot A, Braslavsky C, Truong N (eds) School Knowledge in Comparative and Historical Perspective: Changing Curricula in Primary and Secondary Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 73–88

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IZA Journal of Labor Economics.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Tracking Criminals’ Biodata Is Another Step Towards Constant Surveillance For Us All. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) Acid Rain: Federal Research Into Effects on Waters and Forests. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett MA (2017) The Underrepresentation of Registered Nurses in Hospital CEO Positions: A Grounded Theory Study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2009) A Japanese Immersion Course. New York Times NJ12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bova 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bova 2000; Evans and Thiel 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans and Thiel 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Vogelbein et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleIZA Journal of Labor Economics
AbbreviationIZA J. Labor Econ.
ISSN (online)2193-8997

Other styles