How to format your references using the Journal of Disease Cause and Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Disease Cause and Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nakano H. Survey of the Japanese coast reveals abundant placozoan populations in the Northern Pacific Ocean. Sci Rep 2014;4:5356.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hartung T, Rovida C. Chemical regulators have overreached. Nature 2009;460:1080–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Do-Monte FH, Quiñones-Laracuente K, Quirk GJ. A temporal shift in the circuits mediating retrieval of fear memory. Nature 2015;519:460–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Guarani V, Deflorian G, Franco CA, Krüger M, Phng L-K, Bentley K, et al. Acetylation-dependent regulation of endothelial Notch signalling by the SIRT1 deacetylase. Nature 2011;473:234–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thériault M, Rosiers FD. Modeling Urban Dynamics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
Bandt C, Falconer K, Zähle M, editors. Fractal Geometry and Stochastics V. vol. 70. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Barkalov A, Titarenko L. Synthesis of compositional microprogram control units with code sharing. In: Barkalov A, Titarenko L, editors. Logic Synthesis for Compositional Microprogram Control Units, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008, p. 99–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Disease Cause and Control.

Blog post
Andrew E. Researchers Study More Than 15,000 Penises To Determine Average Lengths Around The World. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications Privacy: GSA’s Planned FTS 2000 Telephone Record Controls Appear Reasonable. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deise EC. Frame problems, Fodor’s challenge, and practical reason. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Hidden Treasures Of the Food Industry. New York Times 2007:14NJ13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Disease Cause and Control
AbbreviationJ. Dis. Cause Contr.
ISSN (print)2452-2228

Other styles