How to format your references using the Journal of Disease Cause and Control citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Disease Cause and Control. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hastings A. Metapopulation persistence with age-dependent disturbance or succession. Science 2003;301:1525–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fitoussi C, Bourdon B. Silicon isotope evidence against an enstatite chondrite Earth. Science 2012;335:1477–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kumar D, Barman S, Barman A. Magnetic vortex based transistor operations. Sci Rep 2014;4:4108.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Syassen N, Bauer DM, Lettner M, Volz T, Dietze D, García-Ripoll JJ, et al. Strong dissipation inhibits losses and induces correlations in cold molecular gases. Science 2008;320:1329–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kiehl AR, Mays MBC. Atlas for the Diagnosis of Tumors in the Dog and Cat. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Baranauskas MCC, Liu K, Sun L, Neris VP de A, Bonacin R, Nakata K, editors. Socially Aware Organisations and Technologies. Impact and Challenges: 17th IFIP WG 8.1 International Conference on Informatics and Semiotics in Organisations, ICISO 2016, Campinas, Brazil, August 1-3, 2016, Proceedings. vol. 477. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Freeman R. The Role of the Adrenal Glands in the Hyperandrogenism Associated with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. In: Pal L, editor. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Current and Emerging Concepts, New York, NY: Springer; 2014, p. 71–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Disease Cause and Control.

Blog post
Andrew E. Hovercraft Coming To Market in 2017. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Motor Carriers: Establishing System for Self-Reporting Equipment Problems Appears Feasible, but Safety Benefits Questionable and Costs Unknown. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Choi Y. Three essays on econometrics. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Angelos J. The Prophet. New York Times 2017:MM46.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Disease Cause and Control
AbbreviationJ. Dis. Cause Contr.
ISSN (print)2452-2228

Other styles