How to format your references using the ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hentze, M.W. Protein Synthesis. Believe It or Not-Translation in the Nucleus. Science 2001, 293, 1058–1059.
A journal article with 2 authors
Takehara-Nishiuchi, K.; McNaughton, B.L. Spontaneous Changes of Neocortical Code for Associative Memory during Consolidation. Science 2008, 322, 960–963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Riemer, J.; Bulleid, N.; Herrmann, J.M. Disulfide Formation in the ER and Mitochondria: Two Solutions to a Common Process. Science 2009, 324, 1284–1287.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gaudet, F.; Hodgson, J.G.; Eden, A.; Jackson-Grusby, L.; Dausman, J.; Gray, J.W.; Leonhardt, H.; Jaenisch, R. Induction of Tumors in Mice by Genomic Hypomethylation. Science 2003, 300, 489–492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Forshaw, M. Understanding Headaches and Migraines; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2006; ISBN 9780470030233.
An edited book
Religion and Spirituality Across Cultures; Kim-Prieto, C., Ed.; Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; Vol. 9; ISBN 9789401789493.
A chapter in an edited book
Tejchman, J.; Bobiński, J. Discontinuous Approach to Concrete. In Continuous and Discontinuous Modelling of Fracture in Concrete Using FEM; Bobiński, J., Ed.; Springer Series in Geomechanics and Geoengineering; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 95–107 ISBN 9783642284625.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information.

Blog post
Hale, T. Incredibly Rare White Risso’s Dolphin Spotted For First Time In Years Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation Enhancements: Status of the $2.4 Billion Authorized for Nonmotorized Transportation; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shimizu, K. The Procurement System of the Japanese Space Agency: Present Challenges, Future Promise. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J. Pandora Gets New Partner In Sirius XM. New York Times 2017, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
AbbreviationISPRS Int. J. Geoinf.
ISSN (online)2220-9964

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