How to format your references using the ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MacNeil, S. Progress and opportunities for tissue-engineered skin. Nature 2007, 445, 874–880.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deng, X.H.; Matsumoto, H. Rapid magnetic reconnection in the Earth’s magnetosphere mediated by whistler waves. Nature 2001, 410, 557–560.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davies, P.C.W.; Davis, T.M.; Lineweaver, C.H. Black holes constrain varying constants. Nature 2002, 418, 602–603.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Couzin, I.D.; Krause, J.; Franks, N.R.; Levin, S.A. Effective leadership and decision-making in animal groups on the move. Nature 2005, 433, 513–516.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aksamija, A. Integrating Innovation in Architecture; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781119164807.
An edited book
Advances in Digital Forensics VIII: 8th IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics, Pretoria, South Africa, January 3-5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers; Peterson, G., Shenoi, S., Eds.; IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; Vol. 383; ISBN 9783642339615.
A chapter in an edited book
Tan, M.; Tan, M. Developing Disciplinary Intuitions in the Natural Sciences. In Disciplinary Intuitions and the Design of Learning Environments; Lim, K.Y.T., Ed.; Springer: Singapore, 2015; pp. 55–63 ISBN 9789812871817.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information.

Blog post
Davis, J. First-Ever Field Observations Of Rare And Elusive Whale Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Air Traffic Control: Remote Radar for Grand Junction; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhu, Z. Financial restatements: Implications for management earnings forecasts. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. In Yanks-Phillies Rivalry, a Wife May Have Been the Key Player. New York Times 2011, SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
AbbreviationISPRS Int. J. Geoinf.
ISSN (online)2220-9964

Other styles