How to format your references using the ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pennisi, E. Geography. Advancing seasons in China. Science 2013, 341, 482–483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klausner, R.; Alonso, P. An attack on all fronts. Nature 2004, 430, 930–931.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gill, D.L.; Spassova, M.A.; Soboloff, J. Signal transduction. Calcium entry signals--trickles and torrents. Science 2006, 313, 183–184.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Koss, M.J.; Blecha, L.; Bernhard, P.; Hung, C.-L.; Lu, J.R.; Trakthenbrot, B.; Treister, E.; Weigel, A.; Sartori, L.F.; Mushotzky, R.; et al. A population of luminous accreting black holes with hidden mergers. Nature 2018, 563, 214–216.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindahl, D. Trump University Commercial Real Estate 101; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2008; ISBN 9781118257920.
An edited book
Proceedings of The Eighth International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA), 2013; Yin, Z., Pan, L., Fang, X., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; Vol. 212; ISBN 9783642375019.
A chapter in an edited book
Correig, A.M.; Urquizu, M.; Vila, J.; Macià, R. Microseism Activity and Equilibrium Fluctuations. In Nonlinear Dynamics in Geosciences; Elsner, J.B., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2007; pp. 69–85 ISBN 9780387349176.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information.

Blog post
Andrew, E. There’s A Fly In The Ointment Of Solar-Powered LED Lighting Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Tank Recovery Vehicle: Status of Program Acquisition and Full-Scale Engineering Development; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1989;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rouhani, M. Overdose prevention and naloxone distribution: A grant project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. It’s Jelena Ostapenko on Her ID, and Alona to Those in the Know. New York Times 2017, SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
AbbreviationISPRS Int. J. Geoinf.
ISSN (online)2220-9964

Other styles