How to format your references using the ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jasanoff, S. Science and Society. Testing Time for Climate Science. Science 2010, 328, 695–696.
A journal article with 2 authors
Losos, J.B.; Pringle, R.M. Competition, Predation and Natural Selection in Island Lizards. Nature 2011, 475, E1-2; discussion E3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frank, M.J.; Seeberger, L.C.; O’reilly, R.C. By Carrot or by Stick: Cognitive Reinforcement Learning in Parkinsonism. Science 2004, 306, 1940–1943.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, W.; Ma, T.; Zhang, B.; Yao, N.; Li, M.; Cui, L.; Li, G.; Ma, Z.; Cheng, J. A Novel Mechanism of Protein Thermostability: A Unique N-Terminal Domain Confers Heat Resistance to Fe/Mn-SODs. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7284.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McBee, J. Mastering Microsoft® Exchange Server 2007 SP1; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2009; ISBN 9781118257425.
An edited book
Somebody Knows, Somebody Cares: Reengaging Students through Relationship; Hutchison, K., McCann, T., Eds.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2015; ISBN 9789463001335.
A chapter in an edited book
Schneider, U.; Österle, A. Fiscal Competition and Activist Social Policy. In National Tax Policy in Europe: To Be or Not to Be?; Andersson, K., Eberhartinger, E., Oxelheim, L., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 69–83 ISBN 9783540707097.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Stress Harms Infants’ Learning Flexibility Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office EPA: New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines Air Pollution Control--Voluntary Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Coleman, J.M. Classroom Management: Whose Responsibility Is It? Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B.; Remnick, N.; Baker, A.L. Blood Spilled in South Bronx As National Gang Colors Blur. New York Times 2017, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
AbbreviationISPRS Int. J. Geoinf.
ISSN (online)2220-9964

Other styles