How to format your references using the Invertebrate Systematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Invertebrate Systematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Rose, F. (2008). Meetings that changed the world: Paris 1951: The birth of CERN. Nature 455, 174–175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Andersson, C., and Read, D. (2014). Group size and cultural complexity. Nature 511, E1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davé, U. P., Jenkins, N. A., and Copeland, N. G. (2004). Gene therapy insertional mutagenesis insights. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303, 333.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Christie, A. M., Lilley, S. J., Staunton, E., Andreev, Y. G., and Bruce, P. G. (2005). Increasing the conductivity of crystalline polymer electrolytes. Nature 433, 50–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wasson, C. S. (2005). ‘System Analysis, Design, and Development’. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.)
An edited book
Malczewski, J. (2015). ‘Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Geographic Information Science’ Ed C. Rinner. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.)
A chapter in an edited book
O’Gorman, G., and Blott, S. (2007). Large Scale Simulation of Tor: In ‘Advances in Computer Science – ASIAN 2007. Computer and Network Security: 12th Asian Computing Science Conference, Doha, Qatar, December 9-11, 2007. Proceedings’. (Ed I. Cervesato.) Lecture Notes in Computer Science. pp. 48–54. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Invertebrate Systematics.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017). A Dolphin Photographed Wearing A T-Shirt Worries Australian Wildlife Rangers. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014). 2020 Census: Prioritized Information Technology Research and Testing Is Needed for Census Design Decisions. GAO-14-389. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung, D. (2017). Health Information Infrastructure: Flows and Frictions. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2001). World Briefing | Europe: Abkhazia: Air Strikes On Rebels. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Rose 2008).
This sentence cites two references (de Rose 2008; Andersson and Read 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Andersson and Read 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Christie et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvertebrate Systematics
AbbreviationInvertebr. Syst.
ISSN (print)1445-5226
ISSN (online)1447-2600
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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