How to format your references using the Invertebrate Systematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Invertebrate Systematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arner P (2011). Medicine. Lipases in cachexia. Science (New York, N.Y.) 333, 163–164.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fedoroff N, Fontana W (2002). Genetic networks. Small numbers of big molecules. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297, 1129–1131.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jakobsen L, Ratcliffe JM, Surlykke A (2013). Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats. Nature 493, 93–96.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smith RR, Killelea DR, DelSesto DF, Utz AL (2004). Preference for vibrational over translational energy in a gas-surface reaction. Science (New York, N.Y.) 304, 992–995.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lemma A (2008). ‘Introduction to the Practice of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy’. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: West Sussex, England)
An edited book
Sehoole C, Knight J (Eds.) (2013). ‘Internationalisation of African Higher Education: Towards Achieving the MDGs’. (SensePublishers: Rotterdam)
A chapter in an edited book
Mongini C (2015). Morphogenesis Under Construction: Tracing the Process of Individuation Along Physico-Aesthetic Coordinates. In ‘Morphogenesis and Individuation’. (Eds A Sarti, F Montanari, F Galofaro.) Lecture Notes in Morphogenesis. pp. 75–89. (Springer International Publishing: Cham)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Invertebrate Systematics.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2017). Psychologist Reveals The 9 Most Common Dreams And What They Mean. IFLScience. Available at: [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007). NASA: Agency Has Taken Steps Toward Making Sound Investment Decisions for Ares I but Still Faces Challenging Knowledge Gaps. GAO-08-51. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Contreras AG (2009). A reproductive health program for the Latino adolescent community: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2015). Puerto Rico Misses First Debt Payment. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Arner 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Fedoroff and Fontana 2002; Arner 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fedoroff and Fontana 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvertebrate Systematics
AbbreviationInvertebr. Syst.
ISSN (print)1445-5226
ISSN (online)1447-2600
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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