How to format your references using the Invertebrate Systematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Invertebrate Systematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wyatt, T. (2007). High-energy colliders and the rise of the standard model. Nature 448, 274–280.
A journal article with 2 authors
Calsbeek, R., and Cox, R. M. (2010). Experimentally assessing the relative importance of predation and competition as agents of selection. Nature 465, 613–616.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCormick, D. A., Shu, Y., and Yu, Y. (2007). Neurophysiology: Hodgkin and Huxley model--still standing? Nature 445, E1-2; discussion E2-3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Katzman, S., Kern, A. D., Bejerano, G., Fewell, G., Fulton, L., Wilson, R. K., Salama, S. R., and Haussler, D. (2007). Human genome ultraconserved elements are ultraselected. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317, 915.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Whitcomb, C. A., and Whitcomb, L. E. (2013). ‘Effective Interpersonal and Team Communication Skills for Engineers’. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.)
An edited book
Kawanabe, H., Nishino, M., and Maehata, M. (Eds.) (2012). ‘Lake Biwa: Interactions between Nature and People’. (Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht.)
A chapter in an edited book
Chin, A., and Chignell, M. (2010). DISSECT: Data-Intensive Socially Similar Evolving Community Tracker. In ‘Computational Social Network Analysis: Trends, Tools and Research Advances’. (Eds A. Abraham, A.-E. Hassanien, and V. Sná¿el.) Computer Communications and Networks. pp. 81–105. (Springer: London.)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Invertebrate Systematics.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Denmark Is Developing Ladybug-Spraying Drones For Its Christmas Tree Farms. IFLScience. Available at: [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987). Space Shuttle Accident: NASA’s Actions To Address the Presidential Commission Report. NSIAD-88-30BR. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Correa, L. (2015). Urban-rural differences in overweight and obese status among adolescents. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., and Haberman, M. (2017). Volume Rising In Nativist Talk From President. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wyatt 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Wyatt 2007; Calsbeek and Cox 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Calsbeek and Cox 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Katzman et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvertebrate Systematics
AbbreviationInvertebr. Syst.
ISSN (print)1445-5226
ISSN (online)1447-2600
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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