How to format your references using the Invertebrate Systematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Invertebrate Systematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ginsparg, P. (2011). ArXiv at 20. Nature 476, 145–147.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lardner, B., and bin Lakim, M. (2002). Animal communication: tree-hole frogs exploit resonance effects. Nature 420, 475.
A journal article with 3 authors
Trail, D., Watson, E. B., and Tailby, N. D. (2011). The oxidation state of Hadean magmas and implications for early Earth’s atmosphere. Nature 480, 79–82.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
García-Ruiz, J. M., Hyde, S. T., Carnerup, A. M., Christy, A. G., Van Kranendonk, M. J., and Welham, N. J. (2003). Self-assembled silica-carbonate structures and detection of ancient microfossils. Science (New York, N.Y.) 302, 1194–1197.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mather, P. M., and Koch, M. (2011). ‘Computer Processing of Remotely-Sensed Images’. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.)
An edited book
VanDerwarker, A. M., and Peres, T. M. (Eds.) (2010). ‘Integrating Zooarchaeology and Paleoethnobotany: A Consideration of Issues, Methods, and Cases’. (Springer: New York, NY.)
A chapter in an edited book
Ebrahimi, M., and Daneshtalab, M. (2014). Learning-Based Routing Algorithms for On-Chip Networks. In ‘Routing Algorithms in Networks-on-Chip’. (Eds M. Palesi and M. Daneshtalab.) pp. 105–125. (Springer: New York, NY.)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Invertebrate Systematics.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). Mysterious Legendary Metal Found In Ancient Shipwreck. IFLScience. Available at: [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1976). The Legislative Focus on Federal ADP Procurement and GAO’s Role. No. 100061. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bottorff, E. A. (2011). The community college baccalaureate: A study of capital costs in Florida. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Endrst, J. (2016). Hugh O’Brian, Dashing Leading Man Remembered for ‘Wyatt Earp,’ Dies at 91. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ginsparg 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Lardner and bin Lakim 2002; Ginsparg 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lardner and bin Lakim 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (García-Ruiz et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvertebrate Systematics
AbbreviationInvertebr. Syst.
ISSN (print)1445-5226
ISSN (online)1447-2600
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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