How to format your references using the Invertebrate Systematics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Invertebrate Systematics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laloë F (2003). Obituary: Jean Brossel (1918-2003). Nature 422, 274.
A journal article with 2 authors
Atran S, Ginges J (2012). Religious and sacred imperatives in human conflict. Science (New York, N.Y.) 336, 855–857.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee T-H, Bhunia S, Mehregany M (2010). Electromechanical computing at 500 degrees C with silicon carbide. Science (New York, N.Y.) 329, 1316–1318.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang H, Zhang X, Sun X, Ma Y (2013). Shape-controlled synthesis of nanocarbons through direct conversion of carbon dioxide. Scientific reports 3, 3534.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maguire L, Smith E (2012). ‘30 Great Myths about Shakespeare’. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd.: Oxford, UK)
An edited book
Agresta F, Campanile FC, Anania G, Bergamini C (Eds.) (2016). ‘Emergency Laparoscopy’. (Springer International Publishing: Cham)
A chapter in an edited book
Affenzeller M, Beham A, Kofler M, Kronberger G, Wagner SA, Winkler S (2009). Metaheuristic Optimization. In ‘Hagenberg Research’. (Eds B Buchberger, M Affenzeller, A Ferscha, M Haller, T Jebelean, EP Klement, P Paule, G Pomberger, W Schreiner, R Stubenrauch, R Wagner, G Weiß, W Windsteiger.) pp. 103–155. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Invertebrate Systematics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). The Autonomous Killing Systems Of The Future Are Already Here, They’re Just Not Necessarily Weapons – Yet. IFLScience. Available at: [accessed 30 October 2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013). Pipeline Safety: Better Data and Guidance Could Improve Operators’ Responses to Incidents. GAO-13-284T. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jeffries RE (2010). An NMR-compatible bioartificial liver for metabolomic investigation of drug action. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K (2017). Seeking a Shift to Entrepreneurship, Executive Will Leave JPMorgan. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laloë 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Laloë 2003; Atran and Ginges 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Atran and Ginges 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInvertebrate Systematics
AbbreviationInvertebr. Syst.
ISSN (print)1445-5226
ISSN (online)1447-2600
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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