How to format your references using the Journal of Hand and Microsurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hand and Microsurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bray D (2003) Genomics. Molecular prodigality. Science 299:1189–1190
A journal article with 2 authors
Jensen LJ, Bork P (2008) Biochemistry. Not comparable, but complementary. Science 322:56–57
A journal article with 3 authors
Hong Y, Wang Z, Jin X (2013) Sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide for graphene preparation. Sci Rep 3:3439
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bartels L, Wang F, Möller D, et al (2004) Real-space observation of molecular motion induced by femtosecond laser pulses. Science 305:648–651

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sawant RJ (2010) Infrastructure Investing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Humphries P (2012) Hereditary Retinopathies: Progress in Development of Genetic and Molecular Therapies. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Wohlers TE, Bernier LL (2016) United States. In: Bernier LL (ed) Setting Sail into the Age of Digital Local Government: Trends and Best Practices. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 39–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hand and Microsurgery.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) CRISPR-Enabled Bacteria Transformed Into Self-Replicating Biological Hard Drive. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Transportation Safety: Information Concerning Why a 1980 Aircraft Report Was Not Provided Earlier to the National Transportation Safety Board. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liu Y (2013) Analysis on the distinct path in a star interconnection network. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) Armstrong Can’t Break Away From Doping Charges. New York Times B14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hand and Microsurgery
AbbreviationJ. Hand Microsurg.
ISSN (print)0974-3227
ISSN (online)0974-6897

Other styles