How to format your references using the Journal of Hand and Microsurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hand and Microsurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles S (2008) Being human: Conflict: Altruism’s midwife. Nature 456:326–327
A journal article with 2 authors
Michalakis Y, Roze D (2004) Evolution. Epistasis in RNA viruses. Science 306:1492–1493
A journal article with 3 authors
Qiu XH, Nazin GV, Ho W (2003) Vibrationally resolved fluorescence excited with submolecular precision. Science 299:542–546
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Beaufort L, de Garidel-Thoron T, Mix AC, Pisias NG (2001) ENSO-like forcing on oceanic primary production during the Late Pleistocene. Science 293:2440–2444

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saliba AJ, Corona JC, Johnson KE (2010) Option Spread Strategies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Platanias LC (2005) Cytokines and Cancer. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Milivojevic S (2016) Re-bordering the Peripheral Global North and Global South: Game of Drones, Immobilising Mobile Bodies and Decentring Perspectives on Drones in Border Policing. In: Završnik A (ed) Drones and Unmanned Aerial Systems: Legal and Social Implications for Security and Surveillance. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 83–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hand and Microsurgery.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Researchers Discover Brain Cell Changes That Contribute To Alzheimer’s Development In Down’s Syndrome Individuals. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) FAA Computer Systems: Limited Progress on Year 2000 Issue Increases Risk Dramatically. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Fossen L (2015) The communicative use of iconic face drawings to express emotional and evaluative statements in persons with aphasia. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF (2008) For Sabbath on Saturdays, Fewer Open Shops. New York Times LI13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hand and Microsurgery
AbbreviationJ. Hand Microsurg.
ISSN (print)0974-3227
ISSN (online)0974-6897

Other styles