How to format your references using the International Journal of Nursing Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nursing Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helmuth L. NEUROSCIENCE: Where the Brain Monitors the Body. Science 2000;290:1668a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Loreau M, Hector A. Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments. Nature 2001;412:72–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön JH, Kloc C, Batlogg B. Fractional quantum Hall effect in organic molecular semiconductors. Science 2000;288:2338–40.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang J-B, Cai Z-C, Zhu T-B, Yang W-Y, Müller C. Mechanisms for the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils of southern China. Sci Rep 2013;3:2342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morrison TJ. Functional Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2000.
An edited book
Jabłoński R, Brezina T, editors. Advanced Mechatronics Solutions. vol. 393. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bartroff J, Lai TL, Shih M-C. Sequential Methods for Vaccine Safety Evaluation and Surveillance in Public Health. In: Lai TL, Shih M-C, editors. Sequential Experimentation in Clinical Trials: Design and Analysis, New York, NY: Springer; 2013, p. 101–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nursing Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew D. Five Things I Wish I Knew When I Left School. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Excluded Parties List System: Suspended and Debarred Businesses and Individuals Improperly Receive Federal Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bakirci A. Proteomic analysis of hepatocyte proteins in response to in vivo iron overload. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman J, Isaac M. Counting Views Is Not as Easy as 1, 2, 3. New York Times 2016:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nursing Sciences
AbbreviationInt. J. Nurs. Sci.
ISSN (print)2352-0132
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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