How to format your references using the International Journal of Nursing Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nursing Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check E. Abbott’s AIDS fight-back. Nature 2007;448:14.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palmer SM, Driscoll CT. Acidic deposition: decline in mobilization of toxic aluminium. Nature 2002;417:242–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doniger DD, Herzog AV, Lashof DA. Climate change. An ambitious, centrist approach to global warming legislation. Science 2006;314:764–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gröblacher S, Paterek T, Kaltenbaek R, Brukner C, Zukowski M, Aspelmeyer M, et al. An experimental test of non-local realism. Nature 2007;446:871–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sundararajan D. Discretewavelet Transform. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Liu Q, Bai Q, Giugni S, Williamson D, Taylor J, editors. Data Provenance and Data Management in eScience. vol. 426. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Tarasyuk A, Pereverzeva I, Troubitsyna E, Latvala T. The Formal Derivation of Mode Logic for Autonomous Satellite Flight Formation. In: Koornneef F, van Gulijk C, editors. Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 34th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2015, Delft, The Netherlands, September 23-25, 2015, Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 29–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nursing Sciences.

Blog post
Fang J. Sharks Keep Attacking Google’s Deep-Ocean Internet Cables. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Prisoners Receiving Social Security and Other Federal Retirement, Disability, and Education Benefits. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Falcone JN. For Pets’ Sake: Is There a Need for Dog Safety Community Education? Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. His Mission: Beat Swords Into Baubles. New York Times 2013:E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nursing Sciences
AbbreviationInt. J. Nurs. Sci.
ISSN (print)2352-0132
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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