How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Helbing, “Globally networked risks and how to respond,” Nature, vol. 497, no. 7447, pp. 51–59, May 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. M. Tarascon and M. Armand, “Issues and challenges facing rechargeable lithium batteries,” Nature, vol. 414, no. 6861, pp. 359–367, Nov. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Mihalcescu, W. Hsing, and S. Leibler, “Resilient circadian oscillator revealed in individual cyanobacteria,” Nature, vol. 430, no. 6995, pp. 81–85, Jul. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. I. Giasson et al., “Initiation and synergistic fibrillization of tau and alpha-synuclein,” Science, vol. 300, no. 5619, pp. 636–640, Apr. 2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.-P. Ollivier, J.-M. Torrenti, and M. Carcassès, Physical Properties of Concrete and Concrete Constituents. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
R. Asleson, Foundations of Ajax. Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Fernández de Cañete, C. Galindo, and I. G. Moral, “Introduction to Control Systems,” in System Engineering and Automation: An Interactive Educational Approach, C. Galindo and I. G. Moral, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 137–165.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.

Blog post
J. Davis, “Humans Have Destroyed A Tenth Of The Planet’s Wilderness In Just 25 Years,” IFLScience, Sep. 09, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Findings on Current AFDC Work Programs and Implications for Pending Legislation,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-HRD-87-12, Apr. 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. D. Guilford, “Advocacy for former prisoners to eliminate invisible bars: A grant proposal,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. G. Gustines, “More Than Just Comic Books, But Plenty of Those, Too,” New York Times, p. C32, Oct. 14, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.
ISSN (print)0018-9545
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Aerospace Engineering
Automotive Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles