How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. H. Baughman, “Retrospective. Alan G. MacDiarmid (1927-2007),” Science, vol. 315, no. 5819, p. 1678, Mar. 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. T. DeKosky and K. Marek, “Looking backward to move forward: early detection of neurodegenerative disorders,” Science, vol. 302, no. 5646, pp. 830–834, Oct. 2003.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Kernbauer, Y. Ding, and K. Cadwell, “An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria,” Nature, vol. 516, no. 7529, pp. 94–98, Dec. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. M. González, W. C. Ruder, P. R. Leduc, and W. C. Messner, “Controlling magnetotactic bacteria through an integrated nanofabricated metallic island and optical microscope approach,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4104, Feb. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V. V. Zhurin, Industrial Ion Sources. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2011.
An edited book
M. Majumder, Feasibility Model of Solar Energy Plants by ANN and MCDM Techniques. Singapore: Springer, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Gupta, A. Bansal, R. Min, L. Simon, and A. Mallya, “Coinductive Logic Programming and Its Applications,” in Logic Programming: 23rd International Conference, ICLP 2007, Porto, Portugal, September 8-13, 2007. Proceedings, V. Dahl and I. Niemelä, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007, pp. 27–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, “NASA’s Mission To Metal Asteroid Psyche Will Now Arrive Four Years Earlier,” IFLScience, May 25, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Patent Policy: Department of Commerce Involvement in Department of Energy Activities,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-86-83, Mar. 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. A. Lucas, “Bridging the Gap Between Schools and Families Through Teacher Home Visits,” Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. R. Kelly, “How the Carolinas Fixed Their Blurred Lines,” New York Times, p. SR6, Aug. 24, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.
ISSN (print)0018-9545
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Aerospace Engineering
Automotive Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles