How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Venkatraman, “Working life. The space roboticist,” Science, vol. 349, no. 6245, p. 338, Jul. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. S. A. Simakov and J. Pérez-Mercader, “Noise induced oscillations and coherence resonance in a generic model of the nonisothermal chemical oscillator,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 2404, 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Akhtar, D. Zink, and P. B. Becker, “Chromodomains are protein-RNA interaction modules,” Nature, vol. 407, no. 6802, pp. 405–409, Sep. 2000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. J. Rohling, R. Marsh, N. C. Wells, M. Siddall, and N. R. Edwards, “Similar meltwater contributions to glacial sea level changes from Antarctic and northern ice sheets,” Nature, vol. 430, no. 7003, pp. 1016–1021, Aug. 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Gray, A History of American Literature. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
S. K. Soltakhanov, Mechanics of non-holonomic systems: A New Class of control systems. in Foundations of Engineering Mechanics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Saariluoma, J. J. Cañas, and J. Leikas, “The Psychology of Fluent Use,” in Designing for Life: A Human Perspective on Technology Development, J. J. Cañas and J. Leikas, Eds., London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016, pp. 79–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.

Blog post
B. Taub, “Italy Calls In Its Army To Help Grow Medical Marijuana,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Computer-Based Patient Records: Subcommittee Questions Concerning VA and DOD Efforts to Achieve a Two-Way Exchange of Health Data,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-04-691R, May 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. L. Forlizzi, “Congruency of supervisor and counselor perceptions of actual and preferred counselor work behaviors,” Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D. Ivory and R. R. Ruiz, “G.M. Resists Expanding Victims’ Fund,” New York Times, p. B1, Jul. 19, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Veh. Technol.
ISSN (print)0018-9545
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Aerospace Engineering
Automotive Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Other styles