How to format your references using the International Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Macilwain C (2001) Science in a changed world. Nature 414:836–837
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Xu B, Tao NJ (2003) Measurement of single-molecule resistance by repeated formation of molecular junctions. Science 301:1221–1223
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Albert R, Jeong H, Barabasi AL (2000) Error and attack tolerance of complex networks. Nature 406:378–382
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Mori Y, Chen T, Fujisawa T, et al (2014) From cartoon to real time MRI: in vivo monitoring of phagocyte migration in mouse brain. Sci Rep 4:6997

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Moorhouse M, Barry P (2005) Bioinformatics Biocomputing and Perl. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Di Bitetto M, Chymis A, D’Anselmi P (2015) Public Management as Corporate Social Responsibility: The Economic Bottom Line of Government. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Werth G, Gheorghe VN, Major FG (2009) Microwave Spectroscopy. In: Gheorghe VN, Major FG (eds) Charged Particle Traps II: Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 85–128

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Orthopaedics.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E (2013) Take College And University Courses Online Completely Free. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/take-college-and-university-courses-online-completely-free/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2001) FTS2001: Transition Challenges Jeopardize Program Goals. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Manso PH (2017) Teacher Evaluation: A Qualitative Study on Growth-Producing Practices in K-8 Schools. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Schwirtz M (2017) New York City Jails Take Another Blow: Respected Official Is Stepping Down. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Orthopaedics
AbbreviationInt. Orthop.
ISSN (print)0341-2695
ISSN (online)1432-5195
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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