How to format your references using the International Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Hoag H (2004) Testing new ground. Nature 429:682–683
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Choi YJ, Lee SY (2013) Microbial production of short-chain alkanes. Nature 502:571–574
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Melchor RN, Buchwaldt R, Bowring S (2013) A Late Eocene date for Late Triassic bird tracks. Nature 495:E1-2
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
David P, Bjorksten T, Fowler K, Pomiankowski A (2000) Condition-dependent signalling of genetic variation in stalk-eyed flies. Nature 406:186–188

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Safari M, Ariff M, Mohamad S (2014) Sukuk Securities. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore
An edited book
1.
Horspool RN (2013) TouchDevelop: Programming on the Go, Third Edition. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Trevanich S, Sribuathong S, Bundidamorn D (2016) The Potential Health Benefits of Traditional Thai-Fermented Foods and Beverages. In: Kristbergsson K, Ötles S (eds) Functional Properties of Traditional Foods. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 39–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Orthopaedics.

Blog post
1.
Taub B (2016) Lab-Grown Corneas Could Help Fight Blindness. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1977) Examination of Possible “Buy-In” by Garrett AiResearch. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Cox V (2015) A Quantitative Analysis of the Yield Curve: Forecasting the Length and End of a Recession. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Sisario B (2016) Coachella Classic. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Orthopaedics
AbbreviationInt. Orthop.
ISSN (print)0341-2695
ISSN (online)1432-5195
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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