How to format your references using the International Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bozell JJ (2010) Chemistry. Connecting biomass and petroleum processing with a chemical bridge. Science 329:522–523
A journal article with 2 authors
Reichenbach A, Pannicke T (2008) Neuroscience. A new glance at glia. Science 322:693–694
A journal article with 3 authors
Elsaesser H, Sauer K, Brooks DG (2009) IL-21 is required to control chronic viral infection. Science 324:1569–1572
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nakamura A, Yao M, Chimnaronk S, et al (2006) Ammonia channel couples glutaminase with transamidase reactions in GatCAB. Science 312:1954–1958

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bobrow J, Fisher S, Mondragon-Gilmore J, et al (2009) CliffsNotes® CSET®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Osei-Bryson K-M, Ngwenyama O (2014) Advances in Research Methods for Information Systems Research: Data Mining, Data Envelopment Analysis, Value Focused Thinking. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Geissler E, László K (2011) Applications of Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Techniques for Characterizing High Surface Area Carbons. In: Mikhalovsky S, Khajibaev A (eds) Biodefence: Advanced Materials and Methods for Health Protection. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 41–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) HIV Detected In “Cured” Mississippi Baby. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Space Shuttle: Changes to the Solid Rocket Motor Contract. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whidby MA (2012) Citation handling: Processing citation texts in scientific documents. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Goodman PS (2017) As U.S. Raises Walls on Trade, Allies Move On. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Orthopaedics
AbbreviationInt. Orthop.
ISSN (print)0341-2695
ISSN (online)1432-5195
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles