How to format your references using the International Orthodontics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Orthodontics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scharer K. Geophysics. Changing views of the San Andreas Fault. Science 2010;327:1089–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lambert JD, Nagy LM. Asymmetric inheritance of centrosomally localized mRNAs during embryonic cleavages. Nature 2002;420:682–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lampard GR, Macalister CA, Bergmann DC. Arabidopsis stomatal initiation is controlled by MAPK-mediated regulation of the bHLH SPEECHLESS. Science 2008;322:1113–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yang J, Li J, Du Z, Gong Q, Teng J, Hong M. Laser hybrid micro/nano-structuring of Si surfaces in air and its applications for SERS detection. Sci Rep 2014;4:6657.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ko CJ, Barr RJ. Dermatopathology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Gregorio MD, Maio VD, Frucci M, Musio C, editors. Brain, Vision, and Artificial Intelligence: First International Symposium, BVAI 2005, Naples, Italy, October 19 – 21, 2005. Proceedings. vol. 3704. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Orsi F. HCC. In: Van Cutsem E, Vogl TJ, Orsi F, Sobrero A, editors. Locoregional Tumor Therapy, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015, p. 31–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Orthodontics.

Blog post
Luntz S. For A Predator-Free Life, Avoid The Tropics. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Estimates of Potential Savings by Retiring Two Aircraft Carriers Early. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuls M. Single item versus multiple items: An examination of validity and the impact of mood in measuring constructs. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: No Choosing Alphabets. New York Times 2004:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Orthodontics
AbbreviationInt. Orthod.
ISSN (print)1761-7227

Other styles