How to format your references using the International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition (IJDAR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coppi, P.: Astronomy. Inside a cosmic train wreck. Science. 316, 1852–1854 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
Liotta, L.A., Kohn, E.C.: The microenvironment of the tumour-host interface. Nature. 411, 375–379 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gong, M., Kirkeminde, A., Ren, S.: Symmetry-defying iron pyrite (FeS₂) nanocrystals through oriented attachment. Sci. Rep. 3, 2092 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hunt, B., Pratt, E., Gadagkar, V., Yamashita, M., Balatsky, A.V., Davis, J.C.: Evidence for a superglass state in solid 4He. Science. 324, 632–636 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhu, Z., Nandi, A.K.: Automatic Modulation Classification. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2014)
An edited book
Perenzoni, M., Paul, D.J. eds: Physics and Applications of Terahertz Radiation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Y., Holtman, C.K., Taton, A., Golden, S.S.: Functional Analysis of the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 Genome. In: Burnap, R. and Vermaas, W. (eds.) Functional Genomics and Evolution of Photosynthetic Systems. pp. 119–137. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Mothers Predominately Cradling Infants On Their Left May Have A Deep Evolutionary Origin,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Amtrak: Limited Income From the Revenue Enhancement Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1990)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parhad, A.: Energy scavenging using piezoelectric sensors to power in pavement intelligent vehicle detection systems, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., Corasaniti, N.: One Nation, Under Fox, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition
AbbreviationInt. J. Doc. Anal. Recognit.
ISSN (print)1433-2833
ISSN (online)1433-2825
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

Other styles